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Molecules 2015, 20(2), 3107-3128; doi:10.3390/molecules20023107

Urine and Serum Metabolite Profiling of Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet and the Anti-Obesity Effects of Caffeine Consumption

1
Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Kon-Kuk University, Seoul 143-701, Korea
2
Department of Medical Nutrition, Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Gyeonggi-do 446-791, Korea
3
College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marcello Iriti
Received: 31 December 2014 / Revised: 9 February 2015 / Accepted: 9 February 2015 / Published: 13 February 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [830 KB, uploaded 13 February 2015]   |  

Abstract

In this study, we investigated the clinical changes induced by a high fat diet (HFD) and caffeine consumption in a rat model. The mean body weight of the HFD with caffeine (HFDC)-fed rat was decreased compared to that of the HFD-fed rat without caffeine. The levels of cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), and free fatty acid, as well as the size of adipose tissue altered by HFD, were improved by caffeine consumption. To investigate the metabolites that affected the change of the clinical factors, the urine and serum of rats fed a normal diet (ND), HFD, and HFDC were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), gas chromatography (GC-TOF-MS), and linear trap quadruple mass spectrometry (LTQ-XL-MS) combined with multivariate analysis. A total of 68 and 52 metabolites were found to be different in urine and serum, respectively. After being fed caffeine, some glucuronide-conjugated compounds, lysoPCs, CEs, DGs, TGs, taurine, and hippuric acid were altered compared to the HFD group. In this study, caffeine might potentially inhibit HFD-induced obesity and we suggest possible biomarker candidates using MS-based metabolite profiling. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; caffeine; high-fat diet; mass spectrometry; multivariate analysis obesity; caffeine; high-fat diet; mass spectrometry; multivariate analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, H.Y.; Lee, M.Y.; Park, H.M.; Park, Y.K.; Shon, J.C.; Liu, K.-H.; Lee, C.H. Urine and Serum Metabolite Profiling of Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet and the Anti-Obesity Effects of Caffeine Consumption. Molecules 2015, 20, 3107-3128.

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