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Molecules 2015, 20(2), 2310-2322; doi:10.3390/molecules20022310

Soy Isoflavones in Nutritionally Relevant Amounts Have Varied Nutrigenomic Effects on Adipose Tissue

1
Laboratory of Functional Foods, Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies (IMDEA)—Food, CEI UAM+CSIC, Carretera de Cantoblanco 8, Madrid 28049, Spain
2
Servicio de Bioquímica-Investigación, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria (IRYCIS), Madrid 28034, Spain
3
CIBER de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid 28029, Spain
4
Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padova, Padova 35121, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marcello Iriti
Received: 25 November 2014 / Revised: 11 December 2014 / Accepted: 22 January 2015 / Published: 30 January 2015
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Abstract

Soy consumption has been suggested to afford protection from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Indeed, accumulated albeit controversial evidence suggests that daily consumption of ≥25 g of soy protein with its associated phytochemicals intact can improve lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic humans. However, the belief that soy foods and supplements positively impact human health has become increasingly controversial among the general public because of the reported estrogenic activities of soy isoflavones. In this study, we investigated the nutrigenomic actions of soy isoflavones (in nutritionally-relevant amounts) with a specific focus on the adipose tissue, due to its pivotal role in cardiometabolism. Young C57BL/6 mice were maintained for eight weeks under two different diet regimes: (1) purified control diet; or (2) purified control diet supplemented with 0.45 g% soybean dry purified extract (a genistein/daidzein mix). Soy isoflavones increased plasma total cholesterol concentrations and decreased triglyceride ones. Circulating leptin levels was also increased by soy consumption. Differentially expressed genes in adipose tissue were classified according to their role(s) in cellular or metabolic pathways. Our data show that soy isoflavones, administered in nutritionally-relevant amounts, have diverse nutrigenomic effects on adipose tissue. Taking into account the moderate average exposure to such molecules, their impact on cardiovascular health needs to be further investigated to resolve the issue of whether soy consumption does indeed increase or decrease cardiovascular risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: soy; isoflavones; leptin; genistein; daidzein soy; isoflavones; leptin; genistein; daidzein
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Giordano, E.; Dávalos, A.; Crespo, M.C.; Tomé-Carneiro, J.; Gómez-Coronado, D.; Visioli, F. Soy Isoflavones in Nutritionally Relevant Amounts Have Varied Nutrigenomic Effects on Adipose Tissue. Molecules 2015, 20, 2310-2322.

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