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Molecules 2015, 20(12), 22202-22219; doi:10.3390/molecules201219845

Targeted and Untargeted Metabolomics to Explore the Bioavailability of the Secoiridoids from a Seed/Fruit Extract (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl) in Human Healthy Volunteers: A Preliminary Study

1
Research Group on Quality, Safety and Bioactivity of Plant Foods, Department Food Science and Technology, Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura (CEBAS)–Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), P. O. Box 164, Campus de Espinardo, Murcia 30100, Spain
2
Naturex SA, Site d’AgroParc, BP 1218, 84911 Avignon Cedex 9, France
3
Department of Food Technology and Nutrition, Catholic University of San Antonio, Campus de los Jerónimos, N° 135, Guadalupe, Murcia 30107, Spain
4
Naturex Spain SL, Autovia A3, Salida343, Camino de Torrent s/n, Quart de Poblet, Valencia 46930, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Emilie Combet
Received: 9 November 2015 / Revised: 30 November 2015 / Accepted: 4 December 2015 / Published: 11 December 2015
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Abstract

The bark, seeds, fruits and leaves of the genus Fraxinus (Oleaceae) which contain a wide range of phytochemicals, mostly secoiridoid glucosides, have been widely used in folk medicine against a number of ailments, yet little is known about the metabolism and uptake of the major Fraxinus components. The aim of this work was to advance in the knowledge on the bioavailability of the secoiridoids present in a Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl seed/fruit extract using both targeted and untargeted metabolomic analyses. Plasma and urine samples from nine healthy volunteers were taken at specific time intervals following the intake of the extract and analyzed by UPLC-ESI-QTOF. Predicted metabolites such as tyrosol and ligstroside-aglycone glucuronides and sulfates were detected at low intensity. These compounds reached peak plasma levels 2 h after the intake and exhibited high variability among the participants. The ligstroside-aglycone conjugates may be considered as potential biomarkers of the Fraxinus secoiridoids intake. Using the untargeted approach we additionally detected phenolic conjugates identified as ferulic acid and caffeic acid sulfates, as well as hydroxybenzyl and hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde sulfate derivatives which support further metabolism of the secoiridoids by phase I and (or) microbial enzymes. Overall, the results of this study suggest low uptake of intact secoiridoids from a Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl extract in healthy human volunteers and metabolic conversion by esterases, glycosidases, and phase II sulfo- and glucuronosyl transferases to form smaller conjugated derivatives. View Full-Text
Keywords: tyrosol; ligstroside-aglycone; UPLC-ESI-QTOF; absorption; metabolism; phase II conjugation tyrosol; ligstroside-aglycone; UPLC-ESI-QTOF; absorption; metabolism; phase II conjugation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

García-Villalba, R.; Tomás-Barberán, F.A.; Fança-Berthon, P.; Roller, M.; Zafrilla, P.; Issaly, N.; García-Conesa, M.-T. Targeted and Untargeted Metabolomics to Explore the Bioavailability of the Secoiridoids from a Seed/Fruit Extract (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl) in Human Healthy Volunteers: A Preliminary Study. Molecules 2015, 20, 22202-22219.

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