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Molecules 2015, 20(1), 335-347; doi:10.3390/molecules20010335

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Vinpocetine in Atherosclerosis and Ischemic Stroke: A Review of the Literature

Department of Neurology, Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, 154, Anshan Road, Heping District, Tianjin 300052, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 24 October 2014 / Accepted: 19 December 2014 / Published: 26 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1557 KB, uploaded 26 December 2014]   |  

Abstract

Immune responses play an important role in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke. Atherosclerosis is a common condition that increases the risk of stroke. Hyperlipidemia damages endothelial cells, thus initiating chemokine pathways and the release of inflammatory cytokines—this represents the first step in the inflammatory response to atherosclerosis. Blocking blood flow in the brain leads to ischemic stroke, and deprives neurons of oxygen and energy. Damaged neurons release danger-associated molecular patterns, which promote the activation of innate immune cells and the release of inflammatory cytokines. The nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells κB (NF-κB) pathway plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke. Vinpocetine is believed to be a potent anti-inflammatory agent and has been used to treat cerebrovascular disorders. Vinpocetine improves neuronal plasticity and reduces the release of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines from endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, macrophages, and microglia, by inhibiting the inhibitor of the NF-κB pathway. This review clarifies the anti-inflammatory role of vinpocetine in atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke. View Full-Text
Keywords: vinpocetine; inflammatory response; ischemic stroke; atherosclerosis vinpocetine; inflammatory response; ischemic stroke; atherosclerosis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhang, L.; Yang, L. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Vinpocetine in Atherosclerosis and Ischemic Stroke: A Review of the Literature. Molecules 2015, 20, 335-347.

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