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Molecules 2014, 19(9), 13392-13421; doi:10.3390/molecules190913392

Effects of Endogenous Signals and Fusarium oxysporum on the Mechanism Regulating Genistein Synthesis and Accumulation in Yellow Lupine and Their Impact on Plant Cell Cytoskeleton

1
Department of Plant Physiology, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wołyńska 35, Poznań 60-637, Poland
2
Laboratory of Electron and Confocal Microscopy, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, Poznań 60-614, Poland
3
Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Z. Noskowskiego 12/14, Poznań 61-704, Poland
4
Laboratory of Molecular Biology Techniques, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, Poznań 60-614, Poland
5
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Dojazd 11, Poznań 60-632, Poland
6
Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smoluchowskiego 17, Poznań 60-179, Poland
7
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, Poznań 60-614, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 April 2014 / Revised: 7 August 2014 / Accepted: 18 August 2014 / Published: 29 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytoalexins: Current Progress and Future Prospects)
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Abstract

The aim of the study was to examine cross-talk interactions of soluble sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) and infection caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lupini on the synthesis of genistein in embryo axes of Lupinus luteus L.cv. Juno. Genistein is a free aglycone, highly reactive and with the potential to inhibit fungal infection and development of plant diseases. As signal molecules, sugars strongly stimulated accumulation of isoflavones, including genistein, and the expression of the isoflavonoid biosynthetic genes. Infection significantly enhanced the synthesis of genistein and other isoflavone aglycones in cells of embryo axes of yellow lupine with high endogenous sugar levels. The activity of β-glucosidase, the enzyme that releases free aglycones from their glucoside bindings, was higher in the infected tissues than in the control ones. At the same time, a very strong generation of the superoxide anion radical was observed in tissues with high sugar contents already in the initial stage of infection. During later stages after inoculation, a strong generation of semiquinone radicals was observed, which level was relatively higher in tissues deficient in sugars than in those with high sugar levels. Observations of actin and tubulin cytoskeletons in cells of infected embryo axes cultured on the medium with sucrose, as well as the medium without sugar, showed significant differences in their organization. View Full-Text
Keywords: genistein; sugars; actin and tubulin cytoskeletons; free radicals; Lupinus luteus; Fusarium oxysporum genistein; sugars; actin and tubulin cytoskeletons; free radicals; Lupinus luteus; Fusarium oxysporum
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Formela, M.; Samardakiewicz, S.; Marczak, Ł.; Nowak, W.; Narożna, D.; Bednarski, W.; Kasprowicz-Maluśki, A.; Morkunas, I. Effects of Endogenous Signals and Fusarium oxysporum on the Mechanism Regulating Genistein Synthesis and Accumulation in Yellow Lupine and Their Impact on Plant Cell Cytoskeleton. Molecules 2014, 19, 13392-13421.

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