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Molecules 2014, 19(9), 13136-13146; doi:10.3390/molecules190913136

In Vivo Antiplasmodial Potentials of the Combinations of Four Nigerian Antimalarial Plants

1
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife 220282, Osun State, Nigeria
2
Department of Pharmacognosy and Herbal Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Uyo 520003, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
3
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Uyo 520003, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 June 2014 / Revised: 18 August 2014 / Accepted: 19 August 2014 / Published: 26 August 2014
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Abstract

Various combinations of Nauclea latifolia root, Artocarpus altilis stem bark, Murraya koenigii leaf and Enantia chlorantha stem bark used in African ethnomedicine as decoctions for malaria and fevers, and combinations with standard drugs, were investigated for antiplasmodial activities using Plasmodium berghei berghei-infected mice. The respective prophylactic and curative ED50 values of 189.4 and 174.5 mg/kg for N. latifolia and chemosuppressive ED50 value of 227.2 mg/kg for A. altilis showed that they were the best antimalarial herbal drugs. A 1.6-fold increase of the survival time given by the negative control was elicited by M. koenigii, thereby confirming its curative activity. Pyrimethamine with an ED50 of 0.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg for the prophylactic, and chloroquine with ED50 = 2.2 ± 0.1 and 2.2 ± 0.0 mg/kg for the chemosuppressive and curative tests, respectively, were significantly (p < 0.05) more active. Co-administrations of N. latifolia with the standard drugs significantly reduced their prophylactic, chemosuppressive and curative actions, possibly increasing the parasites’ resistance. Binary combinations of N. latifolia or M. koenigii with any of the other plants significantly increased the prophylactic and suppressive activities of their individual plants, respectively. Also, E. chlorantha with A. altilis or N. latifolia enhanced their respective prophylactic or curative activities, making these combinations most beneficial against malaria infections. Combinations of three and four extracts gave varied activities. Hence, the results justified the combinations of ethnomedicinal plants in antimalarial herbal remedies and showed the importance of the three in vivo models in establishing antimalarial activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: Nigerian ethnomedicinal plants; in vivo antimalarial models; decoctions; herbal combinations; synergism Nigerian ethnomedicinal plants; in vivo antimalarial models; decoctions; herbal combinations; synergism
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Adebajo, A.C.; Odediran, S.A.; Aliyu, F.A.; Nwafor, P.A.; Nwoko, N.T.; Umana, U.S. In Vivo Antiplasmodial Potentials of the Combinations of Four Nigerian Antimalarial Plants. Molecules 2014, 19, 13136-13146.

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