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Molecules 2014, 19(4), 5205-5218; doi:10.3390/molecules19045205
Article

A Benzoic Acid Derivative and Flavokawains from Piper species as Schistosomiasis Vector Controls

1,2,* , 3
, 4
, 5, 5
, 6
, 3
, 1,†,*  and 3,†
1 Laboratório de Parasitologia, Instituto Butantan, Av. Vital Brasil, 1500, São Paulo, SP, CEP 05503-900, Brazil 2 Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1374, São Paulo, SP, CEP 05508-000, Brazil 3 Research Support Center in Diversity of Natural Products, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 748, sala 1124, São Paulo, SP, CEP 05508-000, Brazil 4 Departamento de Estatística, Centro de Ciências Exatas e de Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Via Washington Luís, km 235, Sao Carlos, SP, Caixa-postal 676, CEP 13565-905, Brazil 5 Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Kr 30 45-03, Bogotá, Colombia 6 Centro de Ciências Aplicadas e Educação, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Campus IV, Rua da Mangueira, s/n, Rio Tinto, PB, CEP 5829-7000, Brazil These authors contributed equally to the organization of this article.
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 March 2014 / Revised: 11 April 2014 / Accepted: 15 April 2014 / Published: 23 April 2014
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Abstract

The search of alternative compounds to control tropical diseases such as schistosomiasis has pointed to secondary metabolites derived from natural sources. Piper species are candidates in strategies to control the transmission of schistosomiasis due to their production of molluscicidal compounds. A new benzoic acid derivative and three flavokawains from Piper diospyrifolium, P. cumanense and P. gaudichaudianum displayed significant activities against Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Additionally, “in silico” studies were performed using docking assays and Molecular Interaction Fields to evaluate the physical-chemical differences among the compounds in order to characterize the observed activities of the test compounds against Biomphalaria glabrata snails.
Keywords: schistosomiasis; molluscicide; benzoic acid; flavokawain; Piper schistosomiasis; molluscicide; benzoic acid; flavokawain; Piper
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Rapado, L.N.; Freitas, G.C.; Polpo, A.; Rojas-Cardozo, M.; Rincón, J.V.; Scotti, M.T.; Kato, M.J.; Nakano, E.; Yamaguchi, L.F. A Benzoic Acid Derivative and Flavokawains from Piper species as Schistosomiasis Vector Controls. Molecules 2014, 19, 5205-5218.

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