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Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18747-18766; doi:10.3390/molecules191118747

The Role of Acyl-Glucose in Anthocyanin Modifications

1
Iwate Biotechnology Research Center, 22-174-4, Narita, Kitakami, Iwate 024-0003, Japan
2
Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakacho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 October 2014 / Revised: 6 November 2014 / Accepted: 10 November 2014 / Published: 14 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanins)
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Abstract

Higher plants can produce a wide variety of anthocyanin molecules through modification of the six common anthocyanin aglycons that they present. Thus, hydrophilic anthocyanin molecules can be formed and stabilized by glycosylation and acylation. Two types of glycosyltransferase (GT) and acyltransferase (AT) have been identified, namely cytoplasmic GT and AT and vacuolar GT and AT. Cytoplasmic GT and AT utilize UDP-sugar and acyl-CoA as donor molecules, respectively, whereas both vacuolar GT and AT use acyl-glucoses as donor molecules. In carnation plants, vacuolar GT uses aromatic acyl-glucoses as the glucose donor in vivo; independently, vacuolar AT uses malylglucose, an aliphatic acyl-glucose, as the acyl-donor. In delphinium and Arabidopsis, p-hydroxybenzoylglucose and sinapoylglucose are used in vivo as bi-functional donor molecules by vacuolar GT and AT, respectively. The evolution of these enzymes has allowed delphinium and Arabidopsis to utilize unique donor molecules for production of highly modified anthocyanins. View Full-Text
Keywords: acyltransferase; anthocyanin; Arabidopsis; carnation; delphinium; glucosyltransferase acyltransferase; anthocyanin; Arabidopsis; carnation; delphinium; glucosyltransferase
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Sasaki, N.; Nishizaki, Y.; Ozeki, Y.; Miyahara, T. The Role of Acyl-Glucose in Anthocyanin Modifications. Molecules 2014, 19, 18747-18766.

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