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Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18511-18526; doi:10.3390/molecules191118511

Proteolysis, NaOH and Ultrasound-Enhanced Extraction of Anticoagulant and Antioxidant Sulfated Polysaccharides from the Edible Seaweed, Gracilaria birdiae

1
Laboratory of Biotechnology of Natural Polymers (BIOPOL), Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal-RN 59078-970, Brazil
2
Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Rio Grande do Norte (IFRN), Santa Cruz-RN 59200-000, Brazil
3
Department of Odontology, University of State of Rio Grande do Norte (UERN), Caicó-RN 59300-000, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 August 2014 / Revised: 22 October 2014 / Accepted: 27 October 2014 / Published: 13 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

The sulfated polysaccharides (SP) from the edible red seaweed, Gracilaria birdiae, were obtained using five different extraction conditions: Gracilaria birdiae 1 (GB1)-water; GB1s-water/sonication; GB1sp-water/sonication/proteolysis; GB2s-NaOH/sonication; and GB2sp-NaOH/sonication/proteolysis. The yield (g) increased in the following order: GB2sp > GB1sp > GB2s > GB1s > GB1. However, the amount of SP extracted increased in a different way: GB2sp > GB1 > GB1sp > GB1s > GB2s. Infrared and electrophoresis analysis showed that all conditions extracted the same SP. In addition, monosaccharide composition showed that ultrasound promotes the extraction of polysaccharides other than SP. In the prothrombin time (PT) test, which evaluates the extrinsic coagulation pathway, none of the samples showed anticoagulant activity. While in the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) test, which evaluates the intrinsic coagulation pathway, all samples showed anticoagulant activity, except GB2s. The aPTT activity decreased in the order of GB1sp > GB2sp > GB1 > GB1s > GB2s. The total capacity antioxidant (TCA) of the SP was also affected by extraction condition, since GB2s and GB1 showed lower activity in comparison to the other conditions. In conclusion, the conditions of SP extraction influence their biological activities and chemical composition. The data revealed that NaOH/sonication/proteolysis was the best condition to extract anticoagulant and antioxidant SPs from Gracilaria birdiae. View Full-Text
Keywords: aPTT assay; total capacity antioxidant; sonication; proteolysis; red seaweed aPTT assay; total capacity antioxidant; sonication; proteolysis; red seaweed
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fidelis, G.P.; Camara, R.B.G.; Queiroz, M.F.; Costa, M.S.S.P.; Santos, P.C.; Rocha, H.A.O.; Costa, L.S. Proteolysis, NaOH and Ultrasound-Enhanced Extraction of Anticoagulant and Antioxidant Sulfated Polysaccharides from the Edible Seaweed, Gracilaria birdiae. Molecules 2014, 19, 18511-18526.

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