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Molecules 2014, 19(11), 17536-17558; doi:10.3390/molecules191117536

Bowman-Birk Protease Inhibitor from Vigna unguiculata Seeds Enhances the Action of Bradykinin-Related Peptides

1
Laboratório de Biofísica, Instituto de Biologia, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidade de Brasília-UnB, Quadra 604, Asa Norte, Bloco J 1° andar, Brasília, DF 70910-900, Brazil
2
Laboratório de Toxinologia, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade de Brasília-UnB, Quadra 604, Asa Norte, Bloco J Térreo, Brasília, DF 70910-900, Brazil
3
Center of Neuroscience and Cardiovascular Physiology, Department of Physiological Sciences, Biological Sciences Institute, Federal University of Goiás, Estrada do Campus, Goiânia, GO 74690-900, Brazil
4
Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia, Laboratório de Espectrometria de Massa, PBI, Parque Estação Biológica, Final W5 Norte, Asa Norte, Brasília, DF 70770-917, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 September 2014 / Revised: 2 October 2014 / Accepted: 9 October 2014 / Published: 30 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

The hydrolysis of bradykinin (Bk) by different classes of proteases in plasma and tissues leads to a decrease in its half-life. Here, Bk actions on smooth muscle and in vivo cardiovascular assays in association with a protease inhibitor, Black eyed-pea trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor (BTCI) and also under the effect of trypsin and chymotrypsin were evaluated. Two synthetic Bk-related peptides, Bk1 and Bk2, were used to investigate the importance of additional C-terminal amino acid residues on serine protease activity. BTCI forms complexes with Bk and analogues at pH 5.0, 7.4 and 9.0, presenting binding constants ranging from 103 to 104 M−1. Formation of BTCI-Bk complexes is probably driven by hydrophobic forces, coupled with slight conformational changes in BTCI. In vitro assays using guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) ileum showed that Bk retains the ability to induce smooth muscle contraction in the presence of BTCI. Moreover, no alteration in the inhibitory activity of BTCI in complex with Bk and analogous was observed. When the BTCI and BTCI-Bk complexes were tested in vivo, a decrease of vascular resistance and consequent hypotension and potentiating renal and aortic vasodilatation induced by Bk and Bk2 infusions was observed. These results indicate that BTCI-Bk complexes may be a reliable strategy to act as a carrier and protective approach for Bk-related peptides against plasma serine proteases cleavage, leading to an increase in their half-life. These findings also indicate that BTCI could remain stable in some tissues to inhibit chymotrypsin or trypsin-like enzymes that cleave and inactivate bradykinin in situ. View Full-Text
Keywords: arterial blood pressure; bradykinin; Bowman-Birk inhibitor; circular dichroism; dynamic light scattering; fluorescence spectroscopy arterial blood pressure; bradykinin; Bowman-Birk inhibitor; circular dichroism; dynamic light scattering; fluorescence spectroscopy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Álvares, A.C.M.; Schwartz, E.F.; Amaral, N.O.; Trindade, N.R.; Pedrino, G.R.; Silva, L.P.; de Freitas, S.M. Bowman-Birk Protease Inhibitor from Vigna unguiculata Seeds Enhances the Action of Bradykinin-Related Peptides. Molecules 2014, 19, 17536-17558.

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