Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Enhancement of Cunninghamella elegans UCP/WFCC 0542 Biomass and Chitosan with Amino Acid Supply
Biological Sciences Program, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife 50670-901, PE, Brazil
Nucleus of Research in Environmental Sciences, General Coordination of Research, Catholic University of Pernambuco, Recife 50050-590, PE, Brazil
Center of Biodiversity Studies, Federal University of Roraima, 69309-270 Boa Vista, RR, Brazil
National Program of Post-doctorate (CAPES), Catholic University of Pernambuco, Recife 50.050-900, PE, Brazil
Department of Education, State of Pernambuco, 50.810-000 Recife, PE, Brazil
Center of Sciences and Technology, University of Pernambuco, Recife 50050-900, PE, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 May 2013; in revised form: 8 August 2013 / Accepted: 12 August 2013 / Published: 22 August 2013
Abstract: Studies were carried out with Cunninghamella elegans UCP/WFCC 0542 to evaluate the effects of an abundant supply of amino acids, asparagine and corn steep liquor associated with sucrose on the production of biomass and chitosan by submerged fermentation. The concentrations of the components of the culture medium which were determined by a 23 full factorial design evaluated the interactions and effects of the independent variables of the sucrose, asparagine and corn steep liquor in relation to carbon and nitrogen sources, on the production of chitosan regarding biomass. The best results were observed at the central point [asparagine 0.025%, sucrose 0.15% and 0.45% of corn steep liquor, ratio C:N=2:6], and produced maximum yields of 16.95 g/L biomass and 2.14 g/L chitosan, after 96 h of submerged fermentation. However, the lowest level of sucrose, asparagine and corn steep liquor produced a low amount of biomass (10.83 g/L) and chitosan (0.60g/L). The infrared spectrum absorption of the chitosan produced by C. elegans showed bands regarding OH-axial stretching between 3406 and 3432 cm−1, superimposed on the NH stretching band with axial deformation of the amide C=O group at about 1639 cm−1, NH angular deformation at approximately 1560 cm−1; axial deformation of amide-CN at around 1421 cm−1, symmetrical angular deformation in CH3 at 1379 cm−1, -CN axial deformation of amino groups from 1125 to 1250 cm−1 and polysaccharide structure bands in the range of between 890–1150 cm−1. The crystallinity index of chitosan was 60.92%, and its degree of deacetylation was 75.25%. A low percentage of a supply of sucrose and asparagine with corn steep liquor offered higher yields of biomass and chitosan production at low cost.
Keywords: Cunninghamella elegans; chitosan; sucrose; asparagine; corn steep liquor
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
dos Santos, E.R.; da Silva, M.C.F.; de Souza, P.M.; da Silva, A.C.; de Paiva, S.C.; Albuquerque, C.D.C.; Nascimento, A.E.; Okada, K.; Campos-Takaki, G.M. Enhancement of Cunninghamella elegans UCP/WFCC 0542 Biomass and Chitosan with Amino Acid Supply. Molecules 2013, 18, 10095-10107.
dos Santos ER, da Silva MCF, de Souza PM, da Silva AC, de Paiva SC, Albuquerque CDC, Nascimento AE, Okada K, Campos-Takaki GM. Enhancement of Cunninghamella elegans UCP/WFCC 0542 Biomass and Chitosan with Amino Acid Supply. Molecules. 2013; 18(9):10095-10107.
dos Santos, Ednaldo R.; da Silva, Marta C.F.; de Souza, Patrícia M.; da Silva, Antonio C.; de Paiva, Sergio C.; Albuquerque, Clarissa D.C.; Nascimento, Aline E.; Okada, Kaoru; Campos-Takaki, Galba M. 2013. "Enhancement of Cunninghamella elegans UCP/WFCC 0542 Biomass and Chitosan with Amino Acid Supply." Molecules 18, no. 9: 10095-10107.