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Protection of Astaxanthin in Astaxanthin Nanodispersions Using Additional Antioxidants
Department of Engineering, East Azarbaijan Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz 1547, Iran
Chemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 1145, Saudi Arabia
Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 May 2013; in revised form: 21 June 2013 / Accepted: 1 July 2013 / Published: 2 July 2013
Abstract: The protective effects of α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid on astaxanthin in astaxanthin nanodispersions produced via a solvent-diffusion technique and stabilized by a three-component stabilizer system, were studied either individually or in combination by using response surface methodology. Generally, both α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid could retard the astaxanthin degradation in astaxanthin nanodispersions. The results showed that the using α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid can be more efficient in increasing the chemical stability of nanodispersions in comparison to using them individually. Using a response surface methodology (RSM) response optimizer, it was seen that addition of ascorbic acid (ascorbic acid/astaxanthin w/w) and α-tocopherol (α-tocopherol/astaxanthin w/w) in proportions of 0.4 and 0.6, respectively, would give the maximum chemical stability to the studied astaxanthin nanodispersions.
Keywords: astaxanthin nanodispersions; chemical stability; ascorbic acid; α-tocopherol
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MDPI and ACS Style
Anarjan, N.; Nehdi, I.A.; Tan, C.P. Protection of Astaxanthin in Astaxanthin Nanodispersions Using Additional Antioxidants. Molecules 2013, 18, 7699-7710.
Anarjan N, Nehdi IA, Tan CP. Protection of Astaxanthin in Astaxanthin Nanodispersions Using Additional Antioxidants. Molecules. 2013; 18(7):7699-7710.
Anarjan, Navideh; Nehdi, Imededdine A.; Tan, Chin P. 2013. "Protection of Astaxanthin in Astaxanthin Nanodispersions Using Additional Antioxidants." Molecules 18, no. 7: 7699-7710.