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Modulation of Xenobiotic Receptors by Steroids
Department of Chemical Biology and Therapeutics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 May 2013; in revised form: 13 June 2013 / Accepted: 19 June 2013 / Published: 24 June 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Steroids
Abstract: Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate the expression of their target genes. NRs play important roles in many human diseases, including metabolic diseases and cancer, and are therefore a key class of therapeutic targets. Steroids play important roles in regulating nuclear receptors; in addition to being ligands of steroid receptors, steroids (and their metabolites) also regulate other NRs, such as the pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor (termed xenobiotic receptors), which participate in steroid metabolism. Xenobiotic receptors have promiscuous ligand-binding properties, and their structurally diverse ligands include steroids and their metabolites. Therefore, steroids, their metabolism and metabolites, xenobiotic receptors, steroid receptors, and the respective signaling pathways they regulate have functional interactions. This review discusses these functional interactions and their implications for activities mediated by steroid receptors and xenobiotic receptors, focusing on steroids that modulate pathways involving the pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor. The emphasis of the review is on structure-function studies of xenobiotic receptors bound to steroid ligands.
Keywords: nuclear receptors; pregnane X receptor: constitutive androstane receptor; steroid
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Banerjee, M.; Robbins, D.; Chen, T. Modulation of Xenobiotic Receptors by Steroids. Molecules 2013, 18, 7389-7406.
Banerjee M, Robbins D, Chen T. Modulation of Xenobiotic Receptors by Steroids. Molecules. 2013; 18(7):7389-7406.
Banerjee, Monimoy; Robbins, Delira; Chen, Taosheng. 2013. "Modulation of Xenobiotic Receptors by Steroids." Molecules 18, no. 7: 7389-7406.