Molecules 2013, 18(6), 6792-6803; doi:10.3390/molecules18066792
Article

Reduction of Saltiness and Acrylamide Levels in Palm Sugar-Like Flavouring through Buffer Modification and the Addition of Calcium Chloride

1 Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia 2 Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Applied Sciences, UCSI University, No. 1, Jalan Menara Gading, UCSI Heights, Cheras 56000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 3 School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 March 2013; in revised form: 9 May 2013 / Accepted: 23 May 2013 / Published: 10 June 2013
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Abstract: Palm sugar-like flavouring (PSLF) is a type of flavour product that is formed by heating amino acids and sugar under specific heating conditions. Unfortunately, PSLF has a salty taste and contains high amounts of acrylamide. Hence, the objective of this research was to reduce saltiness and acrylamide without negatively affecting the aroma properties of PSLF. A decrease in the sodium phosphate (NaHPO4) buffer concentration from 0.20 to 0.02 M was found to reduce sodium to approximately 15% of the level found in original PSLF. A further decrease (~25%) in the sodium content was achieved by removing monobasic sodium phosphate (NaH2PO4) from the buffer system. Meanwhile, the addition of CaCl2 at 20–40 mg/L reduced the acrylamide content in PSLF by as much as 58%. A CaCl2 concentration of 20 mg/mL was most favourable as it most efficiently suppressed acrylamide formation while providing an acceptably high flavour yield in PSLF. In view of the high acrylamide content in PSLF, additional work is necessary to further reduce the amount of acrylamide by controlling the asparagine concentration in the precursor mixture.
Keywords: palm sugar-like flavoring (PSLF); acrylamide; pyrazines; furaneol; high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS)

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tan, P.Y.; Tan, C.P.; Abas, F.; Ho, C.W.; Mustapha, W.A.W. Reduction of Saltiness and Acrylamide Levels in Palm Sugar-Like Flavouring through Buffer Modification and the Addition of Calcium Chloride. Molecules 2013, 18, 6792-6803.

AMA Style

Tan PY, Tan CP, Abas F, Ho CW, Mustapha WAW. Reduction of Saltiness and Acrylamide Levels in Palm Sugar-Like Flavouring through Buffer Modification and the Addition of Calcium Chloride. Molecules. 2013; 18(6):6792-6803.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tan, Phui Y.; Tan, Chin P.; Abas, Faridah; Ho, Chun W.; Mustapha, Wan A.W. 2013. "Reduction of Saltiness and Acrylamide Levels in Palm Sugar-Like Flavouring through Buffer Modification and the Addition of Calcium Chloride." Molecules 18, no. 6: 6792-6803.

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