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Discrimination of Multi-Origin Chinese Herbal Medicines Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Fatty Acid Profiling
State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macao 999078, China
Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China
School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030, China
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 November 2013; in revised form: 3 December 2013 / Accepted: 5 December 2013 / Published: 11 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Acids
Abstract: Multi-origin Chinese herbal medicines, with herbs originating from more than one species of plants, is a common phenomenon but an important issue in Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs). In the present study, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)—based fatty acid profiling approach to rapidly discriminate multi-origin Chinese medicines in terms of species and medicinal parts was proposed and validated using tuberous roots (Curcumae Radix) and rhizomes (Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Longae Rhizoma) derived from four Curcuma species (e.g., C. wenyujin, C. kwangsiensis, C. phaeocaulis and C. longa) as models. Both type and content of fatty acids varied among different species of either tuberous roots or rhizomes, indicating each species has its own fatty acid pattern. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) based on dataset of global fatty acid profiling showed that either tuberous roots or rhizomes samples could be clearly classified into four clusters according to their species. Furthermore, those tested samples could also be discriminated in terms of their medicinal parts (e.g., tuberous root and rhizome). Our findings suggest that the proposed GC-MS-based fatty acid profiling followed by multivariate statistical analysis provides a reliable platform to discriminate multi-origin Chinese herbal medicines according to species and medicinal parts, which will be helpful for ensuring their quality, safety and efficacy.
Keywords: fatty acid profiling; Curcuma species; multi-origin Chinese herbal medicine; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; multivariate statistical analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style
Zhang, X.-J.; Qiu, J.-F.; Guo, L.-P.; Wang, Y.; Li, P.; Yang, F.-Q.; Su, H.; Wan, J.-B. Discrimination of Multi-Origin Chinese Herbal Medicines Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Fatty Acid Profiling. Molecules 2013, 18, 15329-15343.
Zhang X-J, Qiu J-F, Guo L-P, Wang Y, Li P, Yang F-Q, Su H, Wan J-B. Discrimination of Multi-Origin Chinese Herbal Medicines Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Fatty Acid Profiling. Molecules. 2013; 18(12):15329-15343.
Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Qiu, Jian-Feng; Guo, Lan-Ping; Wang, Ying; Li, Peng; Yang, Feng-Qing; Su, Huanxing; Wan, Jian-Bo. 2013. "Discrimination of Multi-Origin Chinese Herbal Medicines Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Fatty Acid Profiling." Molecules 18, no. 12: 15329-15343.