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A Novel Cardiac Bio-Marker: ST2: A Review
Cardiovascular Diseases Section, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation (DETO), University of Bari, Bari 70124, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 October 2013; in revised form: 5 December 2013 / Accepted: 5 December 2013 / Published: 11 December 2013
Abstract: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the major cause of death worldwide. The identification of markers able to detect the early stages of such diseases and/or their progression is fundamental in order to adopt the best actions in order to reduce the worsening of clinical condition. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and NT-proBNP are the best known markers of heart failure (HF), while troponins ameliorated the diagnosis of acute and chronic coronary artery diseases. Nevertheless, many limitations reduce their accuracy. Physicians have tried to develop further detectable molecules in order to improve the detection of the early moments of CVD and prevent their development. Soluble ST2 (suppression of tumorigenicity 2) is a blood protein confirmed to act as a decoy receptor for interleukin-33. It seems to be markedly induced in mechanically overloaded cardiac myocytes. Thus, HF onset or worsening of a previous chronic HF status, myocardial infarct able to induce scars that make the myocardium unable to stretch well, etc, are all conditions that could be detected by measuring blood levels of soluble ST2. The aim of this review is to explore the possible role of ST2 derived-protein as an early marker of cardiovascular diseases, above all in heart failure and ischemic heart diseases.
Keywords: ST2; heart failure; coronary artery diseases; early markers
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MDPI and ACS Style
Ciccone, M.M.; Cortese, F.; Gesualdo, M.; Riccardi, R.; Di Nunzio, D.; Moncelli, M.; Iacoviello, M.; Scicchitano, P. A Novel Cardiac Bio-Marker: ST2: A Review. Molecules 2013, 18, 15314-15328.
Ciccone MM, Cortese F, Gesualdo M, Riccardi R, Di Nunzio D, Moncelli M, Iacoviello M, Scicchitano P. A Novel Cardiac Bio-Marker: ST2: A Review. Molecules. 2013; 18(12):15314-15328.
Ciccone, Marco M.; Cortese, Francesca; Gesualdo, Michele; Riccardi, Roberta; Di Nunzio, Dalia; Moncelli, Michele; Iacoviello, Massimo; Scicchitano, Pietro. 2013. "A Novel Cardiac Bio-Marker: ST2: A Review." Molecules 18, no. 12: 15314-15328.