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Molecules 2013, 18(12), 14455-14469; doi:10.3390/molecules181214455
Review

General Approach for Introduction of Various Chemical Labels in Specific RNA Locations Based on Insertion of Amino Linkers

1,2 and 1,*
1 Laboratory of Ribosome Structure and Functions, Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospect Lavrentieva 8, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia 2 Department of Molecular Biology, Novosibirsk State University, Ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 October 2013 / Revised: 12 November 2013 / Accepted: 18 November 2013 / Published: 25 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis of Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Their Derivatives)
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Abstract

Introduction of reporter groups at designed RNA sites is a widely accepted approach to gain information about the molecular environment of RNAs in their complexes with other biopolymers formed during various cellular processes. A general approach to obtain RNAs bearing diverse reporter groups at designed locations is based on site-specific insertion of groups containing primary aliphatic amine functions (amino linkers) with their subsequent selective derivatization by appropriate chemicals. This article is a brief review on methods for site-specific introduction of amino linkers in different RNAs. These methods comprise: (i) incorporation of a nucleoside carrying an amino-linker or a function that can be substituted with it into oligoribonucleotides in the course of their chemical synthesis; (ii) assembly of amino linker-containing RNAs from short synthetic fragments via their ligation; (iii) synthesis of amino linker-modified RNAs using T7 RNA polymerase; (iv) insertion of amino linkers into unmodified RNAs at functional groups of a certain type such as the 5'-phosphates and N7 of guanosine residues and (v) introduction of an amino linker into long highly structured RNAs exploiting an approach based on sequence-specific modification of nucleic acids. Particular reporter groups used for derivatization of amino linker-containing RNAs together with types of RNA derivatives obtained and fields of their application are presented.
Keywords: ribonucleic acids; amino linkers; chemical synthesis; sequence-specific modification; reporter groups ribonucleic acids; amino linkers; chemical synthesis; sequence-specific modification; reporter groups
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Graifer, D.; Karpova, G. General Approach for Introduction of Various Chemical Labels in Specific RNA Locations Based on Insertion of Amino Linkers. Molecules 2013, 18, 14455-14469.

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