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Thermal Hazard Evaluation of Lauroyl Peroxide Mixed with Nitric Acid
Department of Safety Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China
Department of General Education Center, Chienkuo Technology University, 1, Chieh-Shou N. Rd., Changhua 50094, Taiwan
Department of Applied Chemistry, Providence University, Sha-Lu, Taichung 43301, Taiwan
Process Safety and Disaster Prevention Laboratory, Department of Safety, Health, and Environmental Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technonlogy, 123, University Rd., Sec. 3, Douliou, Yunlin 64002, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 April 2012; in revised form: 20 June 2012 / Accepted: 25 June 2012 / Published: 4 July 2012
Abstract: Many thermal runaway incidents have been caused by organic peroxides due to the peroxy group, –O–O–, which is essentially unstable and active. Lauroyl peroxide (LPO) is also sensitive to thermal sources and is incompatible with many materials, such as acids, bases, metals, and ions. From the thermal decomposition reaction of various concentrations of nitric acid (HNO3) (from lower to higher concentrations) with LPO, experimental data were obtained as to its exothermic onset temperature (T0), heat of decomposition (ΔHd), isothermal time to maximum rate (TMRiso), and other safety parameters exclusively for loss prevention of runaway reactions and thermal explosions. As a novel finding, LPO mixed with HNO3 can produce the detonation product of 1-nitrododecane. We used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal activity monitor III (TAM III), and gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) analyses of the reactivity for LPO and itself mixed with HNO3 to corroborate the decomposition reactions and reaction mechanisms in these investigations.
Keywords: lauroyl peroxide (LPO); nitric acid (HNO3); exothermic onset temperature (T0); heat of decomposition (ΔHd); isothermal time to maximum rate (TMRiso)
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Tsai, L.-C.; You, M.-L.; Ding, M.-F.; Shu, C.-M. Thermal Hazard Evaluation of Lauroyl Peroxide Mixed with Nitric Acid. Molecules 2012, 17, 8056-8067.
Tsai L-C, You M-L, Ding M-F, Shu C-M. Thermal Hazard Evaluation of Lauroyl Peroxide Mixed with Nitric Acid. Molecules. 2012; 17(7):8056-8067.
Tsai, Lung-Chang; You, Mei-Li; Ding, Mei-Fang; Shu, Chi-Min. 2012. "Thermal Hazard Evaluation of Lauroyl Peroxide Mixed with Nitric Acid." Molecules 17, no. 7: 8056-8067.