Molecules 2012, 17(7), 8037-8055; doi:10.3390/molecules17078037
Article

6-Shogaol-Rich Extract from Ginger Up-Regulates the Antioxidant Defense Systems in Cells and Mice

1,†email, 1,2,†email, 3email and 1,* email
Received: 21 May 2012; in revised form: 23 June 2012 / Accepted: 2 July 2012 / Published: 4 July 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants 2012)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is known to have several bioactive compounds including gingerols and shogaols which possess beneficial health properties such as anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects. Based on recent observations that 6-shogaol may have more potent bioactivity than 6-gingerol, we obtained a 6-shogaol-rich extract from ginger and examined its effects on the nuclear factor E2-related factor2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway in vitro and in vivo. 6-Shogaol-rich extract was produced by extracting ginger powder with 95% ethanol at 80 °C after drying at 80 °C (GEE8080). GEE8080 contained over 6-fold more 6-shogaol compared to the room temperature extract (GEE80RT). In HepG2 cells, GEE8080 displayed much stronger inductions of ARE-reporter gene activity and Nrf2 expression than GEE80RT. GEE8080 stimulated phosphorylations of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as ERK, JNK, and p38. Moreover, the GEE8080-induced expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 were attenuated by treatments of SB202190 (a p38 specific inhibitor) and LY294002 (an Akt specific inhibitor). In a mouse model, the GEE8080 decreased the diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-mediated elevations of serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase as well as the DEN-induced hepatic lipid peroxidation. Inductions of Nrf2 and HO-1 by GEE8080 were also confirmed in the mice. In addition, the administration of GEE8080 to the mice also restored the DEN-reduced activity and protein expression of hepatic antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase. In conclusion, GEE8080, a 6-shogaol-rich ginger extract, may enhance antioxidant defense mechanism through the induction of Nrf2 and HO-1 regulated by p38 MAPK and PI3k/Akt pathway in vitro and in vivo.
Keywords: ginger; 6-shogaol; Nrf2; antioxidant response element (ARE); antioxidant defense; MAPK; chemoprevention; cytoprotection; hemeoxygenase 1; antioxidant enzyme
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [766 KB, uploaded 18 June 2014 19:50 CEST]

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Bak, M.-J.; Ok, S.; Jun, M.; Jeong, W.-S. 6-Shogaol-Rich Extract from Ginger Up-Regulates the Antioxidant Defense Systems in Cells and Mice. Molecules 2012, 17, 8037-8055.

AMA Style

Bak M-J, Ok S, Jun M, Jeong W-S. 6-Shogaol-Rich Extract from Ginger Up-Regulates the Antioxidant Defense Systems in Cells and Mice. Molecules. 2012; 17(7):8037-8055.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bak, Min-Ji; Ok, Seon; Jun, Mira; Jeong, Woo-Sik. 2012. "6-Shogaol-Rich Extract from Ginger Up-Regulates the Antioxidant Defense Systems in Cells and Mice." Molecules 17, no. 7: 8037-8055.

Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert