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Identification and Antibacterial Evaluation of Bioactive Compounds from Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds
Microbial Pathogenecity and Molecular Epidemiology Research Group, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X 1314, Alice 5700, South Africa
Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, Box 63, Buea, Cameroon
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 April 2012; in revised form: 12 May 2012 / Accepted: 20 May 2012 / Published: 31 May 2012
Abstract: We assessed the bioactivity of G. kola seeds on Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Plesiomonas shigelloides and Salmonella typhimurium. The crude ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol, acetone and aqueous extracts were screened by the agar-well diffusion method and their activities were further determined by Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) assays. The extracts were fractionated by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Bioautography was used to assess the activity of the possible classes of compounds present in the more active extracts. Column chromatography was used to purify the active compounds from the mixture, while GC-MS was used to identify the phytocomponents of the fractions. The inhibition zone diameters of the extracts ranged from 0–24 ± 1.1 mm, while MIC and MBC values ranged between 0.04–1.25 mg/mL and 0.081–2.5 mg/mL, respectively. The chloroform/ethyl acetate/formic acid (CEF) solvent system separated more active compounds. The MIC of the fractions ranged between 0.0006–2.5 mg/mL. CEF 3 (F3), CEF 11 (F11) and CEF 12 (F12) revealed the presence of high levels of linoleic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid and 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl ester, respectively. The results obtained from this study justify the use of this plant in traditional medicine and provide leads which could be further exploited for the development of new and potent antimicrobials.
Keywords: Garcinia kola; medicinal plants; antimicrobial activity; Minimum Inhibitory Concentration; Minimum Bactericidal Concentration; GC-MS
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Seanego, C.T.; Ndip, R.N. Identification and Antibacterial Evaluation of Bioactive Compounds from Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds. Molecules 2012, 17, 6569-6584.
Seanego CT, Ndip RN. Identification and Antibacterial Evaluation of Bioactive Compounds from Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds. Molecules. 2012; 17(6):6569-6584.
Seanego, Christinah T.; Ndip, Roland N. 2012. "Identification and Antibacterial Evaluation of Bioactive Compounds from Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds." Molecules 17, no. 6: 6569-6584.