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HCN Channels and Heart Rate
Section of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, University of Bari, School of Medicine, Policlinico, Bari 70124, Italy
Cardiology Unit, San Camillo De Lellis Hospital, Manfredonia (FG) 71043, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 November 2011; in revised form: 21 March 2012 / Accepted: 30 March 2012 / Published: 5 April 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ivabradine
Abstract: Hyperpolarization and Cyclic Nucleotide (HCN) -gated channels represent the molecular correlates of the “funny” pacemaker current (If), a current activated by hyperpolarization and considered able to influence the sinus node function in generating cardiac impulses. HCN channels are a family of six transmembrane domain, single pore-loop, hyperpolarization activated, non-selective cation channels. This channel family comprises four members: HCN1-4, but there is a general agreement to consider HCN4 as the main isoform able to control heart rate. This review aims to summarize advanced insights into the structure, function and cellular regulation of HCN channels in order to better understand the role of such channels in regulating heart rate and heart function in normal and pathological conditions. Therefore, we evaluated the possible therapeutic application of the selective HCN channels blockers in heart rate control.
Keywords: HCN channels; If-current; heart rate control; ivabradine
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Scicchitano, P.; Carbonara, S.; Ricci, G.; Mandurino, C.; Locorotondo, M.; Bulzis, G.; Gesualdo, M.; Zito, A.; Carbonara, R.; Dentamaro, I.; Riccioni, G.; Ciccone, M.M. HCN Channels and Heart Rate. Molecules 2012, 17, 4225-4235.
Scicchitano P, Carbonara S, Ricci G, Mandurino C, Locorotondo M, Bulzis G, Gesualdo M, Zito A, Carbonara R, Dentamaro I, Riccioni G, Ciccone MM. HCN Channels and Heart Rate. Molecules. 2012; 17(4):4225-4235.
Scicchitano, Pietro; Carbonara, Santa; Ricci, Gabriella; Mandurino, Cosimo; Locorotondo, Manuela; Bulzis, Gabriella; Gesualdo, Michele; Zito, Annapaola; Carbonara, Rosa; Dentamaro, Ilaria; Riccioni, Graziano; Ciccone, Marco Matteo. 2012. "HCN Channels and Heart Rate." Molecules 17, no. 4: 4225-4235.