Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Developing Fluorescent Hyaluronan Analogs for Hyaluronan Studies
Department of Radiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 November 2011; in revised form: 2 February 2012 / Accepted: 3 February 2012 / Published: 7 February 2012
Abstract: Two kinds of fluorescent hyaluronan (HA) analogs, one serving as normal imaging agent and the other used as a biosensitive contrast agent, were developed for the investigation of HA uptake and degradation. Our approach of developing HA imaging agents depends on labeling HA with varying molar percentages of a near-infrared (NIR) dye. At low labeling ratios, the hyaluronan uptake can be directly imaged while at high labeling ratios, the fluorescent signal is quenched and signal generation occurs only after degradation. It is found that the conjugate containing 1%–2% NIR dye can be used as a normal optical imaging agent, while bioactivable imaging agents are formed at 6% to 17% dye loading. It was determined that the conjugation of dye to HA with different loading percentages does not impact HA biodegradation by hyaluronidase (Hyal). The feasibility of using these two NIR fluorescent hyaluronan analogs for HA investigation was evaluated in vivo with optical imaging. The data demonstrates that the 1% dye loaded fluorescent HA can be used to monitor the behavior of HA and its fragments, whereas bioactivatable HA imaging agent (17% dye in HA) is more suitable for detecting HA fragments.
Keywords: hyaluronan; hyaluronidase; imaging agent; biosensitive imaging agent
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Wang, W.; Cameron, A.G.; Ke, S. Developing Fluorescent Hyaluronan Analogs for Hyaluronan Studies. Molecules 2012, 17, 1520-1534.
Wang W, Cameron AG, Ke S. Developing Fluorescent Hyaluronan Analogs for Hyaluronan Studies. Molecules. 2012; 17(2):1520-1534.
Wang, Wei; Cameron, Arlin G.; Ke, Shi. 2012. "Developing Fluorescent Hyaluronan Analogs for Hyaluronan Studies." Molecules 17, no. 2: 1520-1534.