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Anthocyanins and Their Variation in Red Wines II. Anthocyanin Derived Pigments and Their Color Evolution
Center for Viticulture and Enology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100083, China
Faculty of Applied Science, Business and Computing, Eastern Institute of Technology, Napier 4142, New Zealand
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 December 2011; in revised form: 25 January 2012 / Accepted: 2 February 2012 / Published: 7 February 2012
Abstract: Originating in the grapes, anthocyanins and their derivatives are the crucial pigments responsible for the red wine color. During wine maturation and aging, the concentration of monomeric anthocyanins declines constantly, while numerous more complex and stable anthocyanin derived pigments are formed, mainly including pyranoanthocyanins, polymeric anthocyanins produced from condensation between anthocyanin and/or flavan-3-ols directly or mediated by aldehydes. Correspondingly, their structural modifications result in a characteristic variation of color, from purple-red color in young red wines to brick-red hue of the aged. Because of the extreme complexity of chemical compounds involved, many investigations have been made using model solutions of know composition rather than wine. Thus, there is a large amount of research still required to obtain an overall perspective of the anthocyanin composition and its change with time in red wines. Future findings may well greatly revise our current interpretation of the color in red wines. This paper summarizes the most recent advances in the studies of the anthocyanins derived pigments in red wines, as well as their color evolution.
Keywords: anthocyanin; red wine; pyranoanthocyanin; polymeric anthocyanins; wine maturation and aging
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MDPI and ACS Style
He, F.; Liang, N.-N.; Mu, L.; Pan, Q.-H.; Wang, J.; Reeves, M.J.; Duan, C.-Q. Anthocyanins and Their Variation in Red Wines II. Anthocyanin Derived Pigments and Their Color Evolution. Molecules 2012, 17, 1483-1519.
He F, Liang N-N, Mu L, Pan Q-H, Wang J, Reeves MJ, Duan C-Q. Anthocyanins and Their Variation in Red Wines II. Anthocyanin Derived Pigments and Their Color Evolution. Molecules. 2012; 17(2):1483-1519.
He, Fei; Liang, Na-Na; Mu, Lin; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Wang, Jun; Reeves, Malcolm J.; Duan, Chang-Qing. 2012. "Anthocyanins and Their Variation in Red Wines II. Anthocyanin Derived Pigments and Their Color Evolution." Molecules 17, no. 2: 1483-1519.