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Recent Advances in Cyclonucleosides: C-Cyclonucleosides and Spore Photoproducts in Damaged DNA
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, 4-4-1 Komatsushima, Aoba-ku, Sendai 981-8558, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 August 2012; in revised form: 25 September 2012 / Accepted: 26 September 2012 / Published: 28 September 2012
Abstract: Cyclonucleosides which are fixed in a specific conformation around the glycosyl bond by a carbon and heteroatom chain constitute a unique category of nucleoside derivatives. Because they are structural analogs, cyclonucleosides and oligodeoxynucleotides containing them would be useful tools for investigating the biological functions and conformations of DNA, RNA as well as their steric interactions with proteins. C-Cyclonucleosides bridged by a carbon chain between the base and sugar moieties are the most attractive from the synthetic points of view as well as for use as biological tools. In this review, recent progress of the synthesis of C-cyclonucleosides is surveyed. Among the C-cyclonucleosides, 5′,8-C-cyclodeoxyadenosine is one of the well-known derivatives of which the first practical synthesis was reported over 30 years ago. Recently, 5′,8-C-cyclodeoxyadenosine has attracted considerable interest as a biomarker, since its formation in oxidatively-damaged DNA is considered to be related to various diseases and aging. Another important analogue of cyclonucleosides is a unique thymidine phosphate dimer, a so-called spore photoproduct, which has been found in photo-damaged DNA. Recent advances in the synthesis, mechanism-studies, and stereochemical preference of repairing enzymes related to 5′,8-C-cyclodeoxyadenosine and spore photoproducts are also reviewed.
Keywords: nucleosides; cyclonuclesides; C-cyclonucleosides; spore photoproduct; synthesis; damaged DNA; conformation; oxidative stress; UV; DNA repair
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MDPI and ACS Style
Yoshimura, Y.; Takahata, H. Recent Advances in Cyclonucleosides: C-Cyclonucleosides and Spore Photoproducts in Damaged DNA. Molecules 2012, 17, 11630-11654.
Yoshimura Y, Takahata H. Recent Advances in Cyclonucleosides: C-Cyclonucleosides and Spore Photoproducts in Damaged DNA. Molecules. 2012; 17(10):11630-11654.
Yoshimura, Yuichi; Takahata, Hiroki. 2012. "Recent Advances in Cyclonucleosides: C-Cyclonucleosides and Spore Photoproducts in Damaged DNA." Molecules 17, no. 10: 11630-11654.