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Induction of Apoptosis in Human Promyelocytic Leukemia HL60 Cells by Panaxynol and Panaxydol
Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China
Department of Pathophysiology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China
Center of Neuroscience Excellence, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 April 2011; in revised form: 21 June 2011 / Accepted: 27 June 2011 / Published: 29 June 2011
Abstract: Panaxynol and panaxydol are naturally occurring polyacetylenes, isolated from the lipophilic fractions of Panax notoginseng, that exert anti-proliferative effects against malignant cells. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study concerning the inhibitory effects of the two polyacetylenes on cell growth of human promyelocytic leukemia cells has been reported. In this paper, we examined the antiproliferation and proapoptotic effects of panaxynol and panaxydol on HL60 cells and investigated their mechanism of action. Cell growth inhibition of panaxynol and panaxydol were determined by trypan blue dye exclusion assays. Apoptosis of cells was revealed by morphological observation, analysis for nuclear DNA distribution and by annexin V-FITC/ PI staining using flow cytometry. It was found that panaxynol and panaxydol markedly inhibited proliferation of HL60 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner via an apoptotic pathway. In concern with these ﬁndings, Western blot analysis showed proteolytic activation of PKCδ, caspase-3 activation and cleavage of poly (ADP [adenosine diphosphate]-ribose) polymerase in HL60 cells treated by panaxynol and panaxydol. In conclusion, panaxynol and panaxydol have profound effects on growth and apoptosis of HL60 cells, suggesting those substances are worthy of further exploration as potential anti-cancer agents.
Keywords: panaxynol; panaxydol, apoptosis; promyelocytic leukemia cell
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MDPI and ACS Style
Yan, Z.; Yang, R.; Jiang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yang, J.; Zhao, Q.; Lu, Y. Induction of Apoptosis in Human Promyelocytic Leukemia HL60 Cells by Panaxynol and Panaxydol. Molecules 2011, 16, 5561-5573.
Yan Z, Yang R, Jiang Y, Yang Z, Yang J, Zhao Q, Lu Y. Induction of Apoptosis in Human Promyelocytic Leukemia HL60 Cells by Panaxynol and Panaxydol. Molecules. 2011; 16(7):5561-5573.
Yan, Zhonghong; Yang, Ruolin; Jiang, Yi; Yang, Zhihui; Yang, Junrui; Zhao, Qian; Lu, Yang. 2011. "Induction of Apoptosis in Human Promyelocytic Leukemia HL60 Cells by Panaxynol and Panaxydol." Molecules 16, no. 7: 5561-5573.