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Molecules 2011, 16(10), 8504-8514; doi:10.3390/molecules16108504

Antibacterial Characteristics and Activity of Water-Soluble Chitosan Derivatives Prepared by the Maillard Reaction

1, 2 and 2,*
1 Department of Biological Science and Technology, China University of Science and Technology, Taipei 11581, Taiwan 2 Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 September 2011 / Revised: 5 October 2011 / Accepted: 9 October 2011 / Published: 11 October 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides: Chemistry, Bioactivity and Analysis)
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The antibacterial activity of water-soluble chitosan derivatives prepared by Maillard reactions against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, and Salmonella typhimurium was examined. Relatively high antibacterial activity against various microorganisms was noted for the chitosan-glucosamine derivative as compared to the acid-soluble chitosan. In addition, it was found that the susceptibility of the test organisms to the water-soluble chitosan derivative was higher in deionized water than in saline solution. Metal ions were also found to reduce the antibacterial activity of the water-soluble chitosan derivative on S. aureus. The marked increase in glucose level, protein content and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was observed in the cell supernatant of S. aureus exposed to the water-soluble chitosan derivative in deionized water. The results suggest that the water-soluble chitosan produced by Maillard reaction may be a promising commercial substitute for acid-soluble chitosan.
Keywords: chitosan; water-soluble chitosan; antibacterial activity; Maillard reaction chitosan; water-soluble chitosan; antibacterial activity; Maillard reaction
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Chung, Y.-C.; Yeh, J.-Y.; Tsai, C.-F. Antibacterial Characteristics and Activity of Water-Soluble Chitosan Derivatives Prepared by the Maillard Reaction. Molecules 2011, 16, 8504-8514.

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