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Molecules 2011, 16(10), 8273-8291; doi:10.3390/molecules16108273
Article

Helichrysum gymnocephalum Essential Oil: Chemical Composition and Cytotoxic, Antimalarial and Antioxidant Activities, Attribution of the Activity Origin by Correlations

1, 2, 3, 4, 4, 1 and 1,*
1 Laboratoire des Interactions Moléculaires et Réactivité Chimique et Photochimique UMR CNRS 5623, University of Toulouse, University of Paul-Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse, France 2 Nat’Ex Biotech. Bat 7, 55 avenue Louis Breguet, 31400 Toulouse, France 3 Laboratoire de Phytochimie et Standardisation, IMRA, BP: 3833 Antananarivo 101, Madagascar 4 Faculté of Pharmacy, University of Toulouse, UMR 152 IRD-UPS Pharma-DEV, University of Paul Sabatier Toulouse 3, 35 chemin des maraîchers, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 9, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 September 2011 / Revised: 23 September 2011 / Accepted: 23 September 2011 / Published: 29 September 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Abstract

Helichrysum gymnocephalum essential oil (EO) was prepared by hydrodistillation of its leaves and characterized by GC-MS and quantified by GC-FID. Twenty three compounds were identified. 1,8-Cineole (47.4%), bicyclosesquiphellandrene (5.6%), γ-curcumene (5.6%), α-amorphene (5.1%) and bicyclogermacrene (5%) were the main components. Our results confirmed the important chemical variability of H. gymnocephalum. The essential oil was tested in vitro for cytotoxic (on human breast cancer cells MCF-7), antimalarial (Plasmodium falciparum: FcB1-Columbia strain, chloroquine-resistant) and antioxidant (ABTS and DPPH assays) activities. H. gymnocephalum EO was found to be active against MCF-7 cells, with an IC50 of 16 ± 2 mg/L. The essential oil was active against P. falciparum (IC50 = 25 ± 1 mg/L). However, the essential oil exhibited a poor antioxidant activity in the DPPH (IC50 value > 1,000 mg/L) and ABTS (IC50 value = 1,487.67 ± 47.70 mg/L) assays. We have reviewed the existing results on the anticancer activity of essential oils on MCF-7 cell line and on their antiplasmodial activity against the P. falciparum. The aim was to establish correlations between the identified compounds and their biological activities (antiplasmodial and anticancer). β-Selinene (R² = 0.76), α-terpinolene (R² = 0.88) and aromadendrene (R² = 0.90) presented a higher relationship with the anti-cancer activity. However, only calamenene (R² = 0.70) showed a significant correlation for the antiplasmodial activity.
Keywords: Helichrysum gymnocephalum; GC-MS; antimalarial activity; cytotoxic activity; antioxidant activity Helichrysum gymnocephalum; GC-MS; antimalarial activity; cytotoxic activity; antioxidant activity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Afoulous, S.; Ferhout, H.; Raoelison, E.G.; Valentin, A.; Moukarzel, B.; Couderc, F.; Bouajila, J. Helichrysum gymnocephalum Essential Oil: Chemical Composition and Cytotoxic, Antimalarial and Antioxidant Activities, Attribution of the Activity Origin by Correlations. Molecules 2011, 16, 8273-8291.

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