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Molecules 2010, 15(7), 5053-5065; doi:10.3390/molecules15075053

An Amperometric Immunosensor Based on a Polyelectrolyte/ Gold Magnetic Nanoparticle Supramolecular Assembly—Modified Electrode for the Determination of HIV p24 in Serum

1
The State Key Laboratory Base of Novel Functional Materials and Preparation science, Faculty of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Ninbo University, Ningbo, 315211, China
2
Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 April 2010 / Accepted: 19 July 2010 / Published: 23 July 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supramolecular Assembly)
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Abstract

Unmanaged sudden withdrawal from the excessive consumption of alcohol (ethanol) adversely alters neuronal integrity in vulnerable brain regions such as the cerebellum, hippocampus, or cortex. In addition to well known hyperexcitatory neurotransmissions, ethanol withdrawal (EW) provokes the intense generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activation of stress-responding protein kinases, which are the focus of this review article. EW also inflicts mitochondrial membranes/membrane potential, perturbs redox balance, and suppresses mitochondrial enzymes, all of which impair a fundamental function of mitochondria. Moreover, EW acts as an age-provoking stressor. The vulnerable age to EW stress is not necessarily the oldest age and varies depending upon the target molecule of EW. A major female sex steroid, 17β-estradiol (E2), interferes with the EW-induced alteration of oxidative signaling pathways and thereby protects neurons, mitochondria, and behaviors. The current review attempts to provide integrated information at the levels of oxidative signaling mechanisms by which EW provokes brain injuries and E2 protects against it.
Keywords: electrochemical biosensor; polyelectrolyte/gold magentic nanoparticle; immunosensor; HIV p24 electrochemical biosensor; polyelectrolyte/gold magentic nanoparticle; immunosensor; HIV p24
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gan, N.; Hou, J.; Hu, F.; Zheng, L.; Ni, M.; Cao, Y. An Amperometric Immunosensor Based on a Polyelectrolyte/ Gold Magnetic Nanoparticle Supramolecular Assembly—Modified Electrode for the Determination of HIV p24 in Serum. Molecules 2010, 15, 5053-5065.

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