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Molecules 2010, 15(6), 3920-3931; doi:10.3390/molecules15063920
Article

Antifungal Activity and Nail Permeation of Nail Lacquer Containing Piper regnellii (Miq.) C. CD. var. pallescens (C. DC.) Yunck (Piperaceae) Leave Extracts and Derivatives

1
, 2
, 2
, 1,3
, 1,3
, 1,4
 and 1,3,*
1 Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Brazil 2 Pós-graduação em Física, Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Brazil 3 Departamento de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900, Maringá, Brazil 4 Departamento de Farmácia e Farmacologia, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 March 2010 / Revised: 11 May 2010 / Accepted: 12 May 2010 / Published: 1 June 2010
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Abstract

The dermatophytes are filamentous fungi that cause cutaneous fungal infections because they use keratin as a nutrient source. For this study the antidermatophyte activity of the extracts and derivates from leaves of Piper regnellii was analyzed. From the dichloromethane extract (EBD) neolignans such as eupomatenoid-3 and eupomatenoid-5 were obtained, and it was submitted to fractionation to remove the green residue, designated as the chloroform fraction (FF). Extracts, chloroform fraction and compounds were tested against Trichophyton rubrum ATCC 28189 to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The chloroform fraction was incorporated to nail lacquer that was analyzed by photoacoustic spectroscopy, in vitro assay and scanning electronic microscopy. For antifungal activity in solid medium the dichloromethane extract and chloroform fraction were used. The compounds eupomatenoid-3 and eupomatenoid-5 were less active than the dichloromethane extract against T. rubrum. EBD and FF showed moderate activity in hyphal growth inhibition in solid medium and EBD did not link to ergosterol. Nail lacquer containing the chloroform fraction showed good penetration through the nail as determined by photoacoustic spectroscopy. From in vitro studies it was observed that nail lacquer concentrations above 20 mg/mL prevented the growth of fungi, but concentrations up to 2.5 inhibited the growth. Scanning electronic microscopy was used to confirm the in vitro nail lacquer activity results. The specie P. regnellii showed great antifungal activity against T. rubrum, and nail lacquer containing its chloroform fraction has great potential to treat onychomycosis caused by these microorganisms.
Keywords: Piper regnellii; nail lacquer; dermatophyte; Trichophyton rubrum; onychomycosis Piper regnellii; nail lacquer; dermatophyte; Trichophyton rubrum; onychomycosis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Koroishi, A.M.; Sehn, E.; Baesso, M.L.; Ueda-Nakamura, T.; Nakamura, C.V.; Cortez, D.A.G.; Filho, B.P.D. Antifungal Activity and Nail Permeation of Nail Lacquer Containing Piper regnellii (Miq.) C. CD. var. pallescens (C. DC.) Yunck (Piperaceae) Leave Extracts and Derivatives. Molecules 2010, 15, 3920-3931.

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