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Molecules 2010, 15(3), 1668-1678; doi:10.3390/molecules15031668

A Comparative Study of the Antibacterial, Antifungal and Antioxidant Activity and Total Content of Phenolic Compounds of Cell Cultures and Wild Plants of Three Endemic Species of Ephedra

1
G.S.Davtyan Institute of Hydroponics Problems, National Academy of Sciences Republic of Armenia, Yerevan, 375082, Armenia
2
Medicinal & Natural Products Chemistry Research Center, University of Medical Science Shiraz, Shiraz, 71345-3388, Iran
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 December 2009 / Revised: 8 February 2010 / Accepted: 8 March 2010 / Published: 11 March 2010
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Abstract

Investigations were carried out to determine antimicrobial and antioxidant properties and total phenol content of three wild species of Ephedra compared with their respective callus cultures. Callus induction was performed in a standard Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with the following hormonal ranges (mg/L) for every species NAA:1.5, Kin:1 for Ephedra strobiliacea, NAA:2, Kin:1 for Ephedra procera and NAA:2, Kin:0.5 for Ephedra pachyclada. These ranges of PGPR (Plant Growth Promote Regulators) were chosen based on callus induction rates, RGR (Relative Growth Rate) and their fresh weights. An antimicrobial test against five Gram negative and two Gram positive bacteria and two fungi was performed using the disc diffusion method. All methanolic extracts showed antimicrobial activity, but the antimicrobial activity of the callus cultures was lower than those of the wild plants. E. strobilacea showed the highest antimicrobial activity, and all methanolic extracts of the wild plants and callus cultures unexpectedly showed the highest antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) test was conducted to evaluate extracts for antioxidant activity. E. strobilacea with 1.61 ± 0.08 mmol eq quercetin/gextract and 0.278 ± 0.02 mmol eq quercetin/gextract for the wild plant and callus, respectively, showed the highest results.The total phenol content of extracts was measured by a Folin Ciocalteau test. All the chosen species displayed phenol contents but E. strobilacea had the highest amount (504.9 ± 41.51 μmol eq catechin/gextracts and 114.61 ± 15.13 μmol eq catechin/gextracts for the wild plants and callus, respectively).
Keywords: Ephedra; callus culture; antibacterial; antifungal; antioxidant; phenol content Ephedra; callus culture; antibacterial; antifungal; antioxidant; phenol content
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Parsaeimehr, A.; Sargsyan, E.; Javidnia, K. A Comparative Study of the Antibacterial, Antifungal and Antioxidant Activity and Total Content of Phenolic Compounds of Cell Cultures and Wild Plants of Three Endemic Species of Ephedra . Molecules 2010, 15, 1668-1678.

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