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Entropy, Volume 8, Issue 3 (September 2006), Pages 113-187

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Open Access Publishing Policy and Efficient Editorial Procedure
Entropy 2006, 8(3), 131-133; doi:10.3390/e8030131
Published: 3 July 2006
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Research

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Open AccessArticle Calculations of System Aging through the Stochastic Entropy
Entropy 2006, 8(3), 134-142; doi:10.3390/e8030134
Received: 12 July 2006 / Accepted: 27 July 2006 / Published: 11 August 2006
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (76 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract The present research discusses four ‘physical’ models of system and calculates thereliability function during system’s aging and maturity on the basis of the system structure. Full article
Open AccessArticle On the Propagation of Blast Wave in Earth′s Atmosphere: Adiabatic and Isothermal Flow
Entropy 2006, 8(3), 143-168; doi:10.3390/e8030163
Received: 11 April 2006 / Accepted: 21 August 2006 / Published: 21 August 2006
PDF Full-text (365 KB)
Abstract
Adiabatic and isothermal propagations of spherical blast wave produced due to a nuclear explosion have been studied using the Energy hypothesis of Thomas, in the nonuniform atmosphere of the earth. The explosion is considered at different heights. Entropy production is also calculated along
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Adiabatic and isothermal propagations of spherical blast wave produced due to a nuclear explosion have been studied using the Energy hypothesis of Thomas, in the nonuniform atmosphere of the earth. The explosion is considered at different heights. Entropy production is also calculated along with the strength and velocity of the shock. In both the cases; for adiabatic and isothermal flows, it has been found that shock strength and shock velocity are larger at larger heights of explosion, in comparison to smaller heights of explosion. Isothermal propagation leads to a smaller value of shock strength and shock velocity in comparison to the adiabatic propagation. For the adiabatic case, the production of entropy is higher at higher heights of explosion, which goes on decreasing as the shock moves away from the point of explosion. However for the isothermal shock, the calculation of entropy production shows negative values. With negative values for the isothermal case, the production of entropy is smaller at higher heights of explosion, which goes on increasing as the shock moves away from the point of explosion. Directional study of the shock motion and entropy production show that in both the cases of adiabatic and isothermal flow, shock strength and shock velocity are larger in upward motion of the shock, in comparison to the downward motion of the shock. For adiabatic flow, entropy production is larger in upward motion of the shock; whereas, with negative values, entropy production is smaller in upward motion of the isothermal shock. For the adiabatic case, the profiles of shock strength, shock velocity and entropy production are smooth and have the largest value in vertically upward direction and have the lowest value in vertically downward direction, forming the oval shape. For the isothermal case, the profiles of shock strength and shock velocity show similar trend as that for adiabatic case but the profile of entropy production shows opposite trend. The profiles maintain their shape as the shock moves away. Comparison with observed values of shock velocity shows that isothermal case produces better results in comparison to the adiabatic case. Full article
Open AccessArticle Generalized Ideal Gas Equations for Structureful Universe
Entropy 2006, 8(3), 175-181; doi:10.3390/e8030175
Received: 19 May 2006 / Accepted: 4 September 2006 / Published: 4 September 2006
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Abstract
We have derived generalized ideal gas equations for a structureful universe consistingof all forms of matters. We have assumed a universe that contains superclusters. Superclusters arethen made of clusters. Each cluster can be further divided into smaller ones and so on. We havederived
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We have derived generalized ideal gas equations for a structureful universe consistingof all forms of matters. We have assumed a universe that contains superclusters. Superclusters arethen made of clusters. Each cluster can be further divided into smaller ones and so on. We havederived an expression for the entropy of such a universe. Our model is rather independent of thegeometry of the intermediate clusters. Our calculations are valid for a non-interacting universewithin non-relativistic limits. We suggest that structure formation can reduce the expansion rateof the universe. Full article
Open AccessArticle Time in Quantum Measurement
Entropy 2006, 8(3), 182-187; doi:10.3390/e8030182
Received: 26 June 2006 / Accepted: 6 September 2006 / Published: 6 September 2006
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (105 KB)
Abstract Based on a model of quantum measurement we derive an estimate for the external measurement-time. Some interesting consequences will be analyzed. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Structuring Information and Entropy: Catalyst as Information Carrier
Entropy 2006, 8(3), 113-130; doi:10.3390/e8030113
Received: 16 March 2006 / Accepted: 15 June 2006 / Published: 16 June 2006
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (165 KB)
Abstract
Many authors tried to exploit the similarities between expressions of the statistical thermodynamics for the entropy and those of Shannon's information theory. In a new approach, we highlight the role of information involved in chemical systems, in particular in the interaction between catalysts
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Many authors tried to exploit the similarities between expressions of the statistical thermodynamics for the entropy and those of Shannon's information theory. In a new approach, we highlight the role of information involved in chemical systems, in particular in the interaction between catalysts and reactants, what we call structuring information. By means of examples, we present some applications of this concept to the biosphere, by visiting a very vast domain going from the appearance of life on earth to its present evolution. Full article

Other

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Open AccessOther Entropy and Effective Support Size
Entropy 2006, 8(3), 169-174; doi:10.3390/e8030169
Received: 5 May 2006 / Accepted: 10 August 2006 / Published: 21 August 2006
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Abstract
Notion of Effective size of support (Ess) of a random variable is introduced. A smallset of natural requirements that a measure of Ess should satisfy is presented. The measure withprescribed properties is in a direct (exp-) relationship to the family of R ́nyi’s
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Notion of Effective size of support (Ess) of a random variable is introduced. A smallset of natural requirements that a measure of Ess should satisfy is presented. The measure withprescribed properties is in a direct (exp-) relationship to the family of R ́nyi’s α-entropies which eincludes also Shannon’s entropy H. Considerations of choice of the value of α imply that exp(H)appears to be the most appropriate measure of Ess.Entropy and Ess can be viewed thanks to their log / exp relationship as two aspects of the samething. In Probability and Statistics the Ess aspect could appear more basic than the entropic one. Full article

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