Use of Storage and Renewable Electricity Generation to Reduce Domestic and Transport Carbon Emissions—Whole Life Energy, Carbon and Cost Analysis of Single Dwelling Case Study (UK)
This case study is a detached dwelling situated in South Wales, UK. It had a 3.6 kWp vertical photovoltaic (PV) system installed in 2014 and a 6.12 kWp roof-mounted PV system installed in 2020, along with a 13.5 kWh electricity storage device, closely followed by an electric vehicle and charger. The impact of these interventions on the reduction in domestic and transport carbon emissions is considered in relation to energy tariffs which encourage the user to shift consumption from high-carbon intensity generation times (generally matching peak consumption in the evening) to low-carbon intensity generation times (overnight). Based on the initial monitored data, the combination of renewable generation, energy storage and swapping to an electric vehicle is likely to avoid 1655.6 kg CO2 per year operational emissions based on the UK electricity grid carbon intensity in 2020.