20 pages, 3699 KiB  
Article
Quality Control of the Dietary Supplements Containing Selected Fat-Soluble Vitamins D and K
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1650; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071650 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1776
Abstract
Nowadays, the most important aspect related to the use of dietary supplements seems to be their quality. There are many reports indicating their insufficient quality primarily related to a much lower content of ingredients or even their absence. Currently, there is an increasing [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the most important aspect related to the use of dietary supplements seems to be their quality. There are many reports indicating their insufficient quality primarily related to a much lower content of ingredients or even their absence. Currently, there is an increasing interest in supplementing the diet with various kinds of supplements, including those containing combinations of vitamins and minerals, among which preparations with vitamin D are very popular. This is probably due to the reduced production of this vitamin, depending on the amount of time spent in the sun and the use of UV-filters. Very often, preparations with cholecalciferol also contain vitamin K2, which is associated with their synergistic effect. Therefore, the question arises about the effectiveness of supplementation, which may be correlated with the quality of commonly available dietary supplements. In the presented work, it was undertaken to develop optimal conditions for the qualitative and quantitative determination of vitamins D2, D3 and K2 in dietary supplements available in various forms, using thin-layer chromatography with densitometric detection. As a result, the methodology for analyzing the content of three vitamins from various matrices was developed, optimized and validated in accordance with ICH requirements. The obtained results allow us to conclude that it is reliable and meets the requirements for analytical procedures used in the analysis of medicinal products. Based on the results obtained for examined dietary supplements, it can be stated that the amount of vitamin D3 in analyzed products is basically similar to that declared by the manufacturer, in contrast to vitamin K2, the content of which is diverse. The developed methodology seems to be a good, low-cost and quick way to control the quality of dietary supplements so that they can supplement the human diet and be a wholesome product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins and Human Health)
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11 pages, 1325 KiB  
Review
Is Maternal Carbohydrate Intake Having an Impact on Newborn Birth Weight? A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1649; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071649 - 28 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1661
Abstract
Glucose is a vital fuel for fetal growth, and carbohydrates are the primary source of glucose in the diet. The effects of carbohydrate intake during pregnancy on neonatal birth weight have not been fully investigated or systematically reviewed. Therefore, this systematic review aimed [...] Read more.
Glucose is a vital fuel for fetal growth, and carbohydrates are the primary source of glucose in the diet. The effects of carbohydrate intake during pregnancy on neonatal birth weight have not been fully investigated or systematically reviewed. Therefore, this systematic review aimed to collate the available evidence to determine whether carbohydrate intake during pregnancy impacts newborn birth weight. A literature search was performed from inception to March 2022 in Embase, Medline, and PsycInfo. Articles published in English were independently screened for the title and abstracts, and then for full texts. Out of 17 studies included, a significant relationship between the intake of maternal carbohydrate or its subcomponents and neonatal birth weight was reported in six studies. Of them, one study reported that higher carbohydrate intake in early pregnancy was associated with lower birth weight. The two other studies reported a positive correlation between maternal carbohydrate intake and neonatal birth weight regarding first- and second-trimester intake. Maternal carbohydrate intake may have an impact on birth weight, as suggested by the included studies in this systematic review. However, the overall review indicates contradictory findings concerning the relationship between carbohydrate intake and neonatal birth weight. Studies assessing the type of carbohydrate and the amount consumed with improved methodological quality are recommended. Full article
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13 pages, 741 KiB  
Article
The NUTRIC Score as a Tool to Predict Mortality and Increased Resource Utilization in Intensive Care Patients with Sepsis
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1648; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071648 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1706
Abstract
The Nutrition Risk in Critically Ill score (NUTRIC) is an important nutritional risk assessment instrument for patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the power of the score to predict mortality in patients treated for [...] Read more.
The Nutrition Risk in Critically Ill score (NUTRIC) is an important nutritional risk assessment instrument for patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the power of the score to predict mortality in patients treated for sepsis and to forecast increased resource utilization and nursing workload in the ICU. The NUTRIC score predicted mortality (AUC 0.833, p < 0.001) with the optimal cut-off value of 6 points. Among patients with a score ≥ 6 on ICU admission, the 28-day mortality was 61%, and 10% with a score < 6 (p < 0.001). In addition, a NUTRIC score of ≥6 was associated with a more intense use of ICU resources, as evidenced by a higher proportion of patients requiring vasopressor infusion (98 vs. 82%), mechanical ventilation (99 vs. 87%), renal replacement therapy (54 vs. 26%), steroids (68 vs. 31%), and blood products (60 vs. 43%); the nursing workload was also significantly higher in this group. In conclusion, the NUTRIC score obtained at admission to the ICU provided a good discriminative value for mortality and makes it possible to identify patients who will ultimately require intense use of ICU resources and an associated increase in the nursing workload during treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Critical Illness)
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17 pages, 350 KiB  
Review
Constipation-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS-C): Effects of Different Nutritional Patterns on Intestinal Dysbiosis and Symptoms
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1647; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071647 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4451
Abstract
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain associated with defecation or a change in bowel habits. The pathogenesis of IBS is not completely clear, but it is known to be multifactorial and complex. Endogenous and exogenous [...] Read more.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain associated with defecation or a change in bowel habits. The pathogenesis of IBS is not completely clear, but it is known to be multifactorial and complex. Endogenous and exogenous factors such as abnormal GI motility, low-grade inflammation, increased epithelial permeability and visceral hypersensitivity, but diet and psychosocial aspects are also recognized as important actors. Furthermore, the interaction between diet and gut microbiota has gained interest as a potential contributor to the pathophysiology of IBS. To date, there is no specific diet for IBS with constipation (IBS-C); however, many studies show that fiber intake, especially soluble fiber such as inulin, could have a positive effect on symptoms. This review aims to evaluate the effects of some nutritional components such as fibers but also functional foods, prebiotics, probiotics and symbiotics on symptoms and microbiota in IBS-C subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
12 pages, 445 KiB  
Article
Effects of Mindful Eating and YogaDance among Overweight and Obese Women: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1646; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071646 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1818
Abstract
Many current treatment options for managing overweight and obesity consist of rather strict diet and exercise regimes that are difficult to implement as a lifelong routine. Therefore, alternative initiatives such as mindful eating and pleasure-oriented physical activity with more focus on implementation and [...] Read more.
Many current treatment options for managing overweight and obesity consist of rather strict diet and exercise regimes that are difficult to implement as a lifelong routine. Therefore, alternative initiatives such as mindful eating and pleasure-oriented physical activity with more focus on implementation and enjoyment are needed to reverse the obesity epidemic. Mindful eating is an approach focusing on inner hunger and satiety signals. YogaDance is a novel exercise approach combining elements of yoga and dance. This study was a randomized controlled trial investigating the individual and combined effects of mindful eating and YogaDance. Participants were healthy, inactive women with overweight or obesity (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2 and/or waist circumference ≥ 80 cm) who were randomized to one of four groups for 8 weeks: mindful eating alone, YogaDance alone, the combination of mindful eating and YogaDance, or control. Fat mass was the primary outcome and secondary outcomes included body weight, waist circumference, and other physiological, behavioral, and quality-of-life outcomes. Sixty-one women were included in the study and randomized to mindful eating and YogaDance combined, YogaDance, mindful eating, or control. Fat mass was reduced by 1.3 kg (95% CI [−10.0, 7.3] kg; p = 0.77), 3.0 kg (95% CI [−11.1, 5.1] kg; p = 0.48), and 1.8 kg (95% CI [−10.1, 6.6] kg; p = 0.69) for the mindful eating, YogaDance, and combined mindful eating and YogaDance interventions, respectively, compared to the control, with corresponding effect sizes of 0.15, 0.34, and 0.21. In complete-case analyses, fat percent and waist circumference were reduced whereas mental quality of life and eating behavior were improved for mindful eating and mindful eating and YogaDance combined compared to the control. In conclusion, the study found modest benefits of an 8-week combination of mindful eating and YogaDance, corroborating findings in previous studies on mindful eating, yoga, and dance. However, the study had several limitations that should be taken into consideration, including low power due to a large drop-out as well as low to moderate training load and compliance. The trial was retrospectively registered (ISRCTN87234794). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition in Women)
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21 pages, 1516 KiB  
Article
Impact of Regular Intake of Microalgae on Nutrient Supply and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Results from the NovAL Intervention Study
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1645; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071645 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1955
Abstract
A 14-day randomized controlled study with a parallel design was conducted with 80 healthy participants. Intervention groups I (IG1) and II (IG2) received a defined background diet and consumed a smoothie enriched with either 15 g of Chlorella dry weight (d.w.) or 15 [...] Read more.
A 14-day randomized controlled study with a parallel design was conducted with 80 healthy participants. Intervention groups I (IG1) and II (IG2) received a defined background diet and consumed a smoothie enriched with either 15 g of Chlorella dry weight (d.w.) or 15 g of Microchloropsis d.w. daily. Control group II (CG2) received a defined background diet without the smoothie. Control group I (CG1) received neither. Blood samples and 24-h urine were collected at the beginning and the end of the study. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, vitamin D3, selenium, iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and the LDL-cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio decreased in IG1 (p < 0.05), while 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 increased (p < 0.05). In IG2, vitamin D3, 25-hydroxyvitamins D2 and D3 decreased (p < 0.05), while concentrations of fatty acids C20:5n3 and C22:5n3 increased. Serum and urine uric acid increased in IG1 and IG2 (p < 0.05). Microchloropsis is a valuable source of n3 fatty acids, as is Chlorella of vitamin D2. Regular consumption of Chlorella may affect the iron and selenium status negatively but may impact blood lipids positively. An elevated uric acid concentration in blood and urine following the regular consumption of microalgae poses potential risks for human health. Full article
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17 pages, 4858 KiB  
Article
Artepillin C Time−Dependently Alleviates Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Mice by Regulating CREB/CRTC2−BMAL1 Signaling
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1644; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071644 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1354
Abstract
Artepillin C (APC), a cAMP-response element−binding (CREB)/CREB regulated transcription coactivator 2 (CRTC2) inhibitor isolated from Brazilian green propolis, can ameliorate metabolic syndrome in obese mice. Because the sensitivity and responsiveness of the body to the drug depend on the time of day and [...] Read more.
Artepillin C (APC), a cAMP-response element−binding (CREB)/CREB regulated transcription coactivator 2 (CRTC2) inhibitor isolated from Brazilian green propolis, can ameliorate metabolic syndrome in obese mice. Because the sensitivity and responsiveness of the body to the drug depend on the time of day and the circadian clock alignment, the optimal administration time of APC for desired efficacy in treating metabolic syndrome remains unclear. In this study, APC (20 mg/kg) or the vehicle was intraperitoneally injected into obese mice once daily for one or three weeks. The results of the insulin tolerance test, pyruvate tolerance test, and histological and biochemical assays showed that APC could improve whole−body glucose homeostasis and decrease hepatic lipid synthesis following a circadian rhythm. Further exploration of the underlying mechanism revealed that APC may disturb the diurnal oscillations of the expression of brain and muscle ARNT−like protein (BMAL1) in primary hepatocytes and the livers of the study subjects. Moreover, APC could inhibit hepatic BMAL1 expression by blocking the CREB/CRTC2 transcription complex. BMAL1 overexpression in primary hepatocytes or the livers of db/db mice antagonized the inhibitory effect of APC on hepatic lipid metabolism. In conclusion, the chronotherapy of APC may relieve metabolic syndrome in obese mice, and the mechanism behind APC−mediated time−of−day effects on metabolic syndrome were unveiled, thereby providing a foundation for optimized APC treatment from a mechanistic perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds and Metabolic Disease)
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10 pages, 272 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Heme and Non-Heme Iron Intake and Its Dietary Sources among Adults in Armenia
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1643; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071643 - 28 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1734
Abstract
Adequate dietary iron (Fe) intake is crucial for preventing Fe-deficient anemia, a recognized global public health concern which is important in Armenia. This study aimed to analyze the intake of Fe, both heme (from animal tissues) and non-heme (more prevalent, but less efficiently [...] Read more.
Adequate dietary iron (Fe) intake is crucial for preventing Fe-deficient anemia, a recognized global public health concern which is important in Armenia. This study aimed to analyze the intake of Fe, both heme (from animal tissues) and non-heme (more prevalent, but less efficiently absorbed), as well as the Fe dietary sources, among adults in a representative national sample in Armenia. The study was conducted on 1400 individuals aged 18–80 and above, who were enrolled from all regions of Armenia. The Fe intake was assessed through a 24 h dietary recall survey, while Fe occurrence was determined through atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The results showed a high proportion of adults with a Fe intake lower than the average requirements set by EFSA (65%, 80% and 85% of males, total females and females at fertile age, respectively). Main Fe sources were bread, fruits and vegetables; heme Fe accounted only for <5% of total Fe intake. Compared to males, females had a lower intake of all forms of Fe (p < 0.05). Significant differences were observed in the intake of different forms of Fe between regions (p < 0.05), while the age-group 36–55 years had higher intakes of total Fe. Our data call for comprehensive nutritional security strategies in order to reduce iron deficiency in Armenia, that represents a public health concern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
13 pages, 1292 KiB  
Review
How to Monitor Hydration Status and Urine Dilution in Patients with Nephrolithiasis
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1642; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071642 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2847
Abstract
Maintenance of hydration status requires a tight balance between fluid input and output. An increase in water loss or a decrease in fluid intake is responsible for dehydration status, leading to kidney water reabsorption. Thus, urine volume decreases and concentration of the different [...] Read more.
Maintenance of hydration status requires a tight balance between fluid input and output. An increase in water loss or a decrease in fluid intake is responsible for dehydration status, leading to kidney water reabsorption. Thus, urine volume decreases and concentration of the different solutes increases. Urine dilution is the main recommendation to prevent kidney stone recurrence. Monitoring hydration status and urine dilution is key to preventing stone recurrence. This monitoring could either be performed via spot urine or 24 h urine collection with corresponding interpretation criteria. In laboratory conditions, urine osmolality measurement is the best tool to evaluate urine dilution, with less interference than urine-specific gravity measurement. However, this evaluation is only available during time lab examination. To improve urine dilution in nephrolithiasis patients in daily life, such monitoring should also be available at home. Urine color is of poor interest, but reagent strips with urine-specific gravity estimation are currently the only available tool, even with well-known interferences. Finally, at home, fluid intake monitoring could be an alternative to urine dilution monitoring. Eventually, the use of a connected device seems to be the most promising solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and Other Fluids in Nephrolithiasis)
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41 pages, 480 KiB  
Review
Obesity in Adults: Position Statement of Polish Association for the Study on Obesity, Polish Association of Endocrinology, Polish Association of Cardiodiabetology, Polish Psychiatric Association, Section of Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery of the Association of Polish Surgeons, and the College of Family Physicians in Poland
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1641; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071641 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3393
Abstract
Obesity in adults and its complications are among the most important problems of public health. The search was conducted by using PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, MEDLINE, and EBSCO databases from January 2010 to December 2022 for English language meta-analyses, systematic reviews, randomized [...] Read more.
Obesity in adults and its complications are among the most important problems of public health. The search was conducted by using PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, MEDLINE, and EBSCO databases from January 2010 to December 2022 for English language meta-analyses, systematic reviews, randomized clinical trials, and observational studies from all over the world. Six main topics were defined in the joint consensus statement of the Polish Association for the Study on Obesity, the Polish Association of Endocrinology, the Polish Association of Cardio-diabetology, the Polish Psychiatric Association, the Section of Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery of the Society of Polish Surgeons, and the College of Family Physicians in Poland: (1) the definition, causes and diagnosis of obesity; (2) treatment of obesity; (3) treatment of main complications of obesity; (4) bariatric surgery and its limitations; (5) the role of primary care in diagnostics and treatment of obesity and barriers; and (6) recommendations for general practitioners, regional authorities and the Ministry of Health. This statement outlines the role of an individual and the adequate approach to the treatment of obesity: overcoming obstacles in the treatment of obesity by primary health care. The approach to the treatment of obesity in patients with its most common complications is also discussed. Attention was drawn to the importance of interdisciplinary cooperation and considering the needs of patients in increasing the long-term effectiveness of obesity management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Nutritional Intervention in Chronic Diseases)
14 pages, 7487 KiB  
Article
Low Zinc Alleviates the Progression of Thoracic Aortic Dissection by Inhibiting Inflammation
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1640; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071640 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1871
Abstract
Vascular inflammation triggers the development of thoracic aortic dissection (TAD). Zinc deficiency could dampen tissue inflammation. However, the role of zinc as a nutritional intervention in the progression of TAD remains elusive. In this study, we employed a classical β-aminopropionitrile monofumarate (BAPN)-induced TAD [...] Read more.
Vascular inflammation triggers the development of thoracic aortic dissection (TAD). Zinc deficiency could dampen tissue inflammation. However, the role of zinc as a nutritional intervention in the progression of TAD remains elusive. In this study, we employed a classical β-aminopropionitrile monofumarate (BAPN)-induced TAD model in mice treated with low zinc and observed that the TAD progression was greatly ameliorated under low zinc conditions. Our results showed that low zinc could significantly improve aortic dissection and rupture (BAPN + low zinc vs. BAPN, 36% vs. 100%) and reduce mortality (BAPN + low zinc vs. BAPN, 22% vs. 57%). Mechanically, low zinc attenuated the infiltration of macrophages and inhibited the expression of inflammatory cytokines, suppressed the phenotype switch of vascular smooth muscle cells from contractile to synthetic types, and eventually alleviated the development of TAD. In conclusion, this study suggested that low zinc may serve as a potential nutritional intervention approach for TAD prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolic Features and Nutritional Interventions in Chronic Diseases)
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11 pages, 581 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Female US Marine Recruits: Workload, Caloric Expenditure, Fitness, Injury Rates, and Menstrual Cycle Disruption during Bootcamp
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1639; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071639 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3017
Abstract
Basic training is centered on developing the physical and tactical skills essential to train a recruit into a Marine. The abrupt increase in activity and energy expenditure in young recruits may contribute to high rates of musculoskeletal injuries, to which females are more [...] Read more.
Basic training is centered on developing the physical and tactical skills essential to train a recruit into a Marine. The abrupt increase in activity and energy expenditure in young recruits may contribute to high rates of musculoskeletal injuries, to which females are more susceptible. To date, the total workload of United State Marine Corps (USMC) bootcamp is unknown and should include movement around the military base (e.g., to and from dining facilities, training locations, and classrooms). Thus, the purpose of this effort was to quantify workload and caloric expenditure, as well as qualitatively assess the impact of female reproductive health and injury rates in female recruits. Female recruits (n = 79; age: 19.1 ± 0.2 years, weight: 59.6 ± 0.8 kg, height: 161.6 ± 0.7 cm) wore physiological monitors daily throughout 10 weeks of USMC bootcamp. Physical fitness test scores, physiological metrics from wearables, injury data, and menstrual cycle information were obtained. Female recruits on average expended 3096 ± 9 kcal per day, walked 11.0 ± 0.1 miles per day, and slept 5:43 ± 1:06 h:min per night throughout the 10 weeks of bootcamp. About one-third (35%) of female recruits sustained an injury. In a subset of females that were not taking birth control and had previously been menstruating, 85% experienced cycle dysfunction during boot camp. High levels of physical activity and caloric expenditure, coupled with the stress of a new environment and insufficient sleep, may lead to alterations in female reproductive cycles and musculoskeletal injuries in young USMC recruits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Training Strategies for the Female)
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13 pages, 1539 KiB  
Article
Increased Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Mitigates Oxidative Damage and Associated Inflammatory Response in Obese Subjects Independent of Body Weight Change
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1638; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071638 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3135
Abstract
Introduction: The growing prevalence of obesity and related type 2 diabetes is reaching epidemic proportions in the Gulf countries. Oxidative damage and inflammation are possible mechanisms linking obesity to diabetes and other related complications, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Aims: To measure the effects [...] Read more.
Introduction: The growing prevalence of obesity and related type 2 diabetes is reaching epidemic proportions in the Gulf countries. Oxidative damage and inflammation are possible mechanisms linking obesity to diabetes and other related complications, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Aims: To measure the effects of increased fruit and vegetable consumption on body weight, waist circumference, oxidative damage, and inflammatory markers. Materials and Methods: We recruited and followed up with 965 community free-living subjects. All recruited subjects had fruit and vegetable intakes, physical activity, antioxidants, and markers of oxidative damage and inflammation measured at baseline and follow up. A validated, semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire was used to assess subjects’ fruit and vegetable consumption. We stratified subjects based on their daily fruit and vegetable consumption and compared metabolic risk factors between those with high fruit and vegetable consumption and those with low consumption. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent effects of fruit and vegetable intake on changes in body weight and waist circumference (WC). Results: A total of 965 community free-living subjects (801 (83%) females, mean (SD) age 39 ± 12 years) were recruited and followed up with for a mean (SD) period of 427 ± 223 days. Using WHO cut-off points for body mass index (BMI), 284 (30%) subjects were overweight and 584 (62%) obese, compared to 69 (8%) at normal body weight. An increased fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with a significant decrease in inflammatory markers (hs CRP, TNF-α) and oxidative damage markers (TBARs) and with increased antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase) compared to a low consumption (p < 0.05). The benefits of an increased fruit and vegetable consumption in obese subjects was independent of changes in body weight and WC and was maintained at follow up. Conclusion: Our results support the beneficial role of a higher fruit and vegetable intake in obese subjects independent of changes in body weight and WC. Full article
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18 pages, 3059 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Effect of Enzymes and Human Milk Oligosaccharides on FODMAP Digestion and Fecal Microbiota Composition
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1637; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071637 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1357
Abstract
Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) cause intestinal discomfort in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). An enzyme mix (2500 SU invertase, 2400 GalU α-galactosidase, 10,000 ALU β-galactosidase) optimized for FODMAP digestion, and/or human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) (2′-FL, DFL, and LNnT), were [...] Read more.
Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) cause intestinal discomfort in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). An enzyme mix (2500 SU invertase, 2400 GalU α-galactosidase, 10,000 ALU β-galactosidase) optimized for FODMAP digestion, and/or human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) (2′-FL, DFL, and LNnT), were evaluated for effects on microbial community activity and composition in short-term colonic incubations using the fecal microbiota of four patients with IBS-D symptoms under the following test conditions: (i) FODMAP, (ii) pre-digested (with enzyme mix) FODMAP, (iii) FODMAP + HMO, and (iv) pre-digested FODMAP + HMO. Pre-digested FODMAP reduced short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production versus FODMAP; HMO restored this. A 10-day experiment with the simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME®), using fecal samples from two patients with IBS-D, further evaluated these findings. FODMAP resulted in decreased microbial diversity versus blank. Pre-digestion with the enzyme mix restored microbial diversity, improved FODMAP digestibility, and reduced gas pressure versus undigested FODMAP; however, SCFA production decreased. HMO restored SCFA production along with an increase in gas pressure and increased abundance of Lachnospiraceae. When used in combination, the FODMAP enzyme mix and HMO may resolve FODMAP-related IBS symptoms while maintaining a healthy gut microbiome via prebiotic activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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14 pages, 1416 KiB  
Article
Associations of Homocysteine, Folate, and Vitamin B12 with Osteoarthritis: A Mendelian Randomization Study
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1636; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071636 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2837
Abstract
Homocysteine, inversely related to folate and vitamin B12, is an independent risk factor for several age-related disorders. However, little is known about the association of homocysteine and related vitamins with osteoarthritis (OA). This study aimed to elucidate the potential causal effects of homocysteine, [...] Read more.
Homocysteine, inversely related to folate and vitamin B12, is an independent risk factor for several age-related disorders. However, little is known about the association of homocysteine and related vitamins with osteoarthritis (OA). This study aimed to elucidate the potential causal effects of homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 on site- and gender-specific OA by applying the two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) approach. Genetically predicted homocysteine showed adverse effects on overall OA (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.044–1.155), knee OA (95% CI: 1.000–1.167), hip OA (95% CI: 1.057–1.297), and spine OA (95% CI: 1.017–1.216). Genetically predicted folate showed protective effects on overall OA (95% CI: 0.783–0.961) and spine OA (95% CI: 0.609–0.954). Folate (95% CI: 0.887–1.004) and vitamin B12 (95% CI: 0.886–1.009) showed a protective trend against knee OA. The patterns of associations were site and gender specific. In conclusion, homocysteine had adverse effects on OA, especially on OA at weight-bearing joints and in females. Folate and vitamin B12 had protective effects on OA. Homocysteine-lowering interventions may be a potential option in the treatment and prevention of OA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
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