Special Issue "Current Research Findings in Veterinary Medicine in the Caribbean Region"

A special issue of Veterinary Sciences (ISSN 2306-7381).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 October 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Lennox Applewhaite

Office of the President, Wildlife Management Authority (WMA), Ganges St., Sophia, Georgetown Guyana And Veterinary Officer, Wildlife Division, WMA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: bovine; Babesia; IFA; haemoparasites; zoonoses
Guest Editor
Dr. Carla Phillips

Faculty of Medical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus Champs Fleurs, Trinidad and Tobago W.I.
Website | E-Mail
Interests: One Health; aquatic medicine (marine mammals, sea turtles, fish health and management)
Guest Editor
Dr. Brendan Lee

School of Veterinary Medicine Saint Matthew’s University Lime Tree Bay Ave West Bay, Cayman Islands
Website | E-Mail
Interests: food safety; food defense; food security; food supply chains; zoonoses; vector-borne disease; public health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

On 14–17 November, 2016, the 29th Conference of the Caribbean Veterinary Medical Association was held in Georgetown, Guyana. During this meeting, veterinary researchers presented and discussed the newest findings in veterinary sciences in the region, covering subject areas ranging from clinical medicine and surgery to infectious diseases. A specific focus of this conference was “One Health in the Caribbean and the wider world’ and its implementation in the region will be highlighted along with research findings in different fields within the Caribbean. Presenters and attendees of this conference, as well as other researchers in the region, are offered the opportunity to publish their most recent research findings in the field of Veterinary Research, along with reviews and case reports. Authors are cordially invited to submit papers to the upcoming Special Issue edition of Veterinary Sciences (ISSN 2306-7381). The manuscript/paper can be submitted via email to the Guest Editors.

Dr. Lennox Applewhaite
Dr. Carla Phillips
Dr. Brendan Lee
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Caribbean,
  • One Health,
  • Veterinary Medicine

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Serosurvey for Infectious Agents Associated with Subfertility and Abortion in Dairy Cattle in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5020051
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 26 April 2018 / Accepted: 1 May 2018 / Published: 11 May 2018
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Abstract
Despite frequent reports of subfertility and abortion in dairy cattle in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T), little is known about the potential infectious and non-infectious causes. This study set out to investigate possible infectious causes of reproductive problems by measuring the seroprevalence of four
[...] Read more.
Despite frequent reports of subfertility and abortion in dairy cattle in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T), little is known about the potential infectious and non-infectious causes. This study set out to investigate possible infectious causes of reproductive problems by measuring the seroprevalence of four of the most significant reproductive pathogens in dairy cattle worldwide: Brucella abortus (B. abortus); Neospora caninum (N. caninum), Bovine Viral Diarrhoea virus (BVDV), and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV). These four reproductive pathogens have been suspected to be present in dairy cattle in T&T for some time but, previously, studies have not been carried out to confirm their presence. Bulk milk samples were collected from 92 dairy farms across Trinidad, representing a total of 1177 dairy cattle. Four dairy farms were selected for individual milk sampling to assess in-farm seroprevalence levels. Milk samples were tested for antibodies to the four pathogens by commercial ELISA kits. The overall farm seroprevalence was 62% for N. caninium and 23% for IBRV, and no antibodies were detected in any of the bulk milk samples for B. abortus or BVDV. Mixed infections for IBRV and N. caninum were common. Seroprevalence levels were between 8% and 65% for N. caninum and between 3% and 53% IBRV on the four individual farms. These results reveal the presence of IBRV and N. caninum for the first time on the island of Trinidad and importantly reveal no evidence for the circulation of BVDV or B. abortus in dairy cattle in Trinidad. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anatomical and Radiographic Study on the Skull and Mandible of the Common Opossum (Didelphis Marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758) in the Caribbean
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5020044
Received: 11 April 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
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Abstract
Common opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) are found throughout the Caribbean island of Trinidad and Tobago. The present work was conducted on 10 skulls and mandibles of the common opossum to describe the osteology and foramina of these skulls and mandibles grossly and
[...] Read more.
Common opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) are found throughout the Caribbean island of Trinidad and Tobago. The present work was conducted on 10 skulls and mandibles of the common opossum to describe the osteology and foramina of these skulls and mandibles grossly and radiographically. The information that is garnered can be used to detect, diagnose, and treat head affections, as well as for comparative studies with the skulls and mandibles of other similar species. The skulls and mandibles were prepared and cleaned using standard method. All of the characteristic features of various standards views of the skulls bones, including dorsal, lateral, caudal and midsagittal, and the lateral and caudal views of the mandibles as well as the foramina of the skulls and mandibles were described and discussed. Each skull was divided into long facial and short cranial regions. No supraorbital foramen was observed in the skulls. The tympanic bulla was absent while there was the tympanic process of the alisphenoid. The temporal process of the zygomatic bone, zygomatic process of maxilla, and zygomatic process of the squamosal bone formed the zygomatic arch. The dental formula was confirmed. The bones and foramina of the skull and mandible were similar to other marsupial species and were homologue to that of other mammals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Descriptive Morphometric Approach of the Skull and Mandible of the Common Opossum (Didelphis Marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758) in the Caribbean and its Clinical Application during Regional Anaesthesia
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5010029
Received: 17 January 2018 / Revised: 19 February 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the morphometric values of the skull and the mandible of the common opossum from the Caribbean island of Trinidad and Tobago. The skulls and mandibles were obtained from ten opossums captured for research purposes. The
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the morphometric values of the skull and the mandible of the common opossum from the Caribbean island of Trinidad and Tobago. The skulls and mandibles were obtained from ten opossums captured for research purposes. The skulls and mandibles were prepared and cleaned using standard method. Some anatomical landmarks of the skulls and mandibles were identified and measured. The results were important for identification of the common opossum via comparison and discussion of our results with that of other marsupial species. Furthermore, the results had clinical importance with regard to regional nerve blocks of the infraorbital, inferior alveolar, and mental nerves for dental extraction and head surgery. This study concluded that by using the anatomical landmarks of the infraorbital and mental foramina it will be easier for the veterinarian surgeons during the application of local anesthetic agent for the infraorbital, inferior alveolar, and mental nerve blocks. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Molecular Identification of Eimeria Species in Broiler Chickens in Trinidad, West Indies
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5010012
Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
Coccidiosis is an intestinal disease of chickens of major economic importance to broiler industries worldwide. Species of coccidia found in chickens include Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria brunetti, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria mitis, Eimeria necatrix, Eimeria praecox, and Eimeria tenella. In recent years, polymerase
[...] Read more.
Coccidiosis is an intestinal disease of chickens of major economic importance to broiler industries worldwide. Species of coccidia found in chickens include Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria brunetti, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria mitis, Eimeria necatrix, Eimeria praecox, and Eimeria tenella. In recent years, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been developed to provide accurate and rapid identification of the seven known Eimeria species of chickens. The aim of this study was to use species-specific real-time PCR (qPCR) to identify which of the seven Eimeria species are present in Trinidad poultry. Seventeen pooled fecal samples were collected from 6 broiler farms (2–5 pens per farm) across Trinidad. Feces were also collected from birds showing clinical signs of coccidiosis in two live bird markets (pluck shops). qPCR revealed the presence of five species of Eimeria (E. acervulina, E. maxima, E. mitis, E. necatrix, and E. tenella), but not E. brunetti or E. praecox. Mixed infections were detected on all broiler farms, and DNA of two highly pathogenic Eimeria species (E. tenella and E. necatrix) was detected in feces taken from clinically sick birds sampled from the two pluck shops. Full article
Open AccessCommunication Detection of Antibodies to Seven Priority Pathogens in Backyard Poultry in Trinidad, West Indies
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5010011
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 20 January 2018
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Abstract
Backyard poultry farms in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) play a vital role in providing food and income for rural communities. There is currently no information on the presence and circulation of pathogens in backyard poultry farms in T&T, and little is known in
[...] Read more.
Backyard poultry farms in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) play a vital role in providing food and income for rural communities. There is currently no information on the presence and circulation of pathogens in backyard poultry farms in T&T, and little is known in relation to the potential risks of spread of these pathogens to the commercial poultry sector. In order to address this, serum samples were collected from 41 chickens on five backyard farms taken from selected locations in Trinidad. Samples were tested for antibodies to seven priority pathogens of poultry by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antibodies were detected in 65% (CI 95%: 50–78%) of the sampled birds for Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), 67.5% (CI 95%: 52–80%) for Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), 10% (CI 95%: 4–23%) for Newcastle disease virus (NDV), 0% (CI 95%: 0–0%) for Avian influenza virus (AIV), 0% (CI 95%: 0–0%) for West Nile virus (WNV), 31.7% (CI 95%: 20–47%) for Mycoplasm gallisepticum/synoviae and 0% (CI 95%: 0–0%) for Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis. These results reveal the presence and circulation of important pathogens of poultry in selected backyard farms in Trinidad. The results provide important information which should be taken into consideration when assessing the risks of pathogen transmission between commercial and backyard poultry farms, as well as between poultry and wild birds. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Limited Survey of Aflatoxins in Poultry Feed and Feed Ingredients in Guyana
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci4040060
Received: 28 October 2017 / Revised: 21 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
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Abstract
A study was conducted to determine the presence of aflatoxins in finished poultry feed from manufacturing companies, feed ingredients, and poultry feed at the point of sale. Two collections were made. In the first collection, samples of the finished feed and feed ingredients
[...] Read more.
A study was conducted to determine the presence of aflatoxins in finished poultry feed from manufacturing companies, feed ingredients, and poultry feed at the point of sale. Two collections were made. In the first collection, samples of the finished feed and feed ingredients were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). For the second collection, all samples were analyzed by ELISA while a subset was analyzed by HPLC. Of the 27 samples of finished feed, five samples had aflatoxin concentrations greater than the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and European Union Commission (EUC) maximum tolerable limit of 20 µg/kg, while for the feed ingredients, three of the 30 samples of feed ingredients exceeded the limit. Of the 93 samples of finished feed purchased from retailers, five samples had aflatoxin concentrations greater than the maximum tolerable limit. This survey indicates that most of the samples were below the maximum regulatory limit and maintained quality up to the point of sale for 2015 and 2016. However, given that some samples were above the limit, there is a need to monitor the production and marketing chain to ensure that the quality of the finished feed is not compromised. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Nutrition of Six Selected Neo-Tropical Mammals in Trinidad and Tobago with the Potential for Domestication
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5020052
Received: 14 February 2018 / Revised: 23 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
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Abstract
This review highlights the available literature on the nutrition of six neo-tropical animals with the potential for domestication—the agouti (Dasyprocta leporina/D. aguti), lappe (Agouti paca), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), manicou/opossum (Didelphis marsupialis insularis), collared
[...] Read more.
This review highlights the available literature on the nutrition of six neo-tropical animals with the potential for domestication—the agouti (Dasyprocta leporina/D. aguti), lappe (Agouti paca), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), manicou/opossum (Didelphis marsupialis insularis), collared peccary (Peccary tajucu) and the red brokcet deer (Mazama americana). Over 100 references were used, spanning over 100 years. The earliest being 1915 and the most recent being 2018. The references used in this review were synthesized to give a detailed look of the dentition, anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract and type of feed these animals consume. Nutritional requirements of the animals are required to understand what is needed for growth, maintenance and reproduction of each physiological stage. The agouti (D. leporina/D. aguti) was observed to be a monogastric mammal that fed primarily on fruits, seeds, animal matter and practiced caecotrophy. The lappe/paca (C. paca/A. paca) was described as a strict herbivore and a frugivore which practiced caecotrophy, with a diet that varied throughout the year, according to food availability. The capybara (H. hydrochaeris) was found to be the largest known rodent and was described as a semiaquatic hindgut fermenter that practiced caecotrophy. The manicou/opossum (D. marsupialis insularis) was found to be an omnivore with a simple stomach. The collared peccary (T. tajacu) was found to be frugivorous. Their unique stomach enabled them to consume a wide variety of feedstuff, allowing them to be found in a wide range of habitats. The red brocket deer (M. americana), a ruminant, was described as a browser that consumed mainly fruits and seeds and they frequented mineral lick. Knowledge of what they consume in the wild is important, so that we know what to feed in captivity. There is also the need to evaluate captive diets while trying to domesticate these mammals and develop nutrient requirement tables for these neo-tropical animals. Finally, an understanding of the dentition and gastrointestinal tract is important to increase efficiency (nutritional and cost). These six neo-tropical mammals were chosen due to their prevalence as game species in Trinidad and Tobago. Full article
Open AccessReview A Review of Current Research and Knowledge Gaps in the Epidemiology of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in Trinidad and Tobago
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5020042
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
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Abstract
Salmonella and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli are two of the main causes of foodborne disease globally, and while they have been implicated as possible causes of foodborne disease within the Caribbean region, the actual incidence is unknown. Trinidad and Tobago, one of the
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Salmonella and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli are two of the main causes of foodborne disease globally, and while they have been implicated as possible causes of foodborne disease within the Caribbean region, the actual incidence is unknown. Trinidad and Tobago, one of the larger countries in the Caribbean, has an estimated annual foodborne disease burden of over 100,000 cases and, similar to other countries, the etiology of most of these cases is unknown. Both pathogens can reside as part of the normal gastrointestinal microflora of many wild and domestic animals, with animals acting as reservoirs, spillover hosts, or dead-end hosts. Carriage in animal species can be asymptomatic or, in the case of Salmonella in particular, there may be clinical manifestation in animals, which resemble the disease seen in humans. In this review, we will focus on the epidemiology of these two foodborne pathogens in Trinidad and Tobago and identify any knowledge gaps in the published literature. The filling of this critical knowledge void is essential for the development and implementation of appropriate mechanisms to reduce the dissemination and transmission of these pathogens, not only in Trinidad and Tobago, but also in the wider Caribbean. Full article
Open AccessReview A Review of Eight High-Priority, Economically Important Viral Pathogens of Poultry within the Caribbean Region
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5010014
Received: 14 December 2017 / Revised: 17 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
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Abstract
Viral pathogens cause devastating economic losses in poultry industries worldwide. The Caribbean region, which boasts some of the highest rates of poultry consumption in the world, is no exception. This review summarizes evidence for the circulation and spread of eight high-priority, economically important
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Viral pathogens cause devastating economic losses in poultry industries worldwide. The Caribbean region, which boasts some of the highest rates of poultry consumption in the world, is no exception. This review summarizes evidence for the circulation and spread of eight high-priority, economically important poultry viruses across the Caribbean region. Avian influenza virus (AIV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), fowl adenovirus group 1 (FADV Gp1), and egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV) were selected for review. This review of serological, molecular, and phylogenetic studies across Caribbean countries reveals evidence for sporadic outbreaks of respiratory disease caused by notifiable viral pathogens (AIV, IBV, NDV, and ILTV), as well as outbreaks of diseases caused by immunosuppressive viral pathogens (IBDV and FADV Gp1). This review highlights the need to strengthen current levels of surveillance and reporting for poultry diseases in domestic and wild bird populations across the Caribbean, as well as the need to strengthen the diagnostic capacity and capability of Caribbean national veterinary diagnostic laboratories. Full article
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Other

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Open AccessCase Report Mitral Kissing Vegetation and Acquired Aortic Valve Stenosis Secondary to Infectious Endocarditis in a Goat with Suppurative Mastitis
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5030064
Received: 31 March 2018 / Revised: 22 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
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Abstract
A six-year-old female goat was presented to the veterinary teaching hospital of the University of the West Indies with a history of progressive hind-limb paresis lasting two weeks. The doe developed a grade 6/6 holosystolic murmur during hospitalisation. Echocardiography revealed vegetative growths attached
[...] Read more.
A six-year-old female goat was presented to the veterinary teaching hospital of the University of the West Indies with a history of progressive hind-limb paresis lasting two weeks. The doe developed a grade 6/6 holosystolic murmur during hospitalisation. Echocardiography revealed vegetative growths attached to cusps of the mitral and aortic valves. There was an accelerated aortic flow at 2.9 m/s and aortic insufficiency. The aortic vegetation was prolapsing into the left ventricle during diastole, causing it to contact the septal mitral valve leaflet. A diagnosis of mitral and aortic vegetative endocarditis, with a mitral kissing vegetation and mild aortic stenosis, was reached. The patient was placed on broad-spectrum antimicrobials. A short-term follow-up showed no resolution of clinical signs, and the animal eventually died. Post-mortem examination showed severe vegetative, fibrino-necrotic, aortic and mitral valve lesions. The goat also had a severe fibrino-suppurative mastitis. Histopathology confirmed the lesions to be vegetative endocarditis. Full article
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Open AccessBrief Report Serological Evidence for Influenza A Virus Exposure in Wild Birds in Trinidad & Tobago
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5020050
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
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Abstract
Migratory waterfowl and shorebirds are known to be important reservoirs for influenza A viruses (IAV) and they have been repeatedly implicated as causing avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreaks in domestic poultry flocks worldwide. In recent years, wild birds have been implicated in spreading
[...] Read more.
Migratory waterfowl and shorebirds are known to be important reservoirs for influenza A viruses (IAV) and they have been repeatedly implicated as causing avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreaks in domestic poultry flocks worldwide. In recent years, wild birds have been implicated in spreading zoonotic H5 influenza viruses to many countries, which has generated high levels of public health concern. Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) is positioned along the wintering route of migratory birds from the Americas; every year, many species of wild birds stopover on the islands of T&T, potentially carrying AIVs and exposing local populations of wild and domestic birds, including commercial poultry, to infection. The aim of this study was to trap, sample, and test as many wild bird species as possible to see whether they were actively infected or previously exposed to AIV. A total of 38 wild birds were trapped, sampled, and tested for IAV RNA, antibodies specific for influenza A nucleoprotein (NP) and antibodies that were specific for H5 and H7 subtypes. Five of the samples tested antibody positive for IAV, while three of these samples had positive titres (≥16) for the H5 subtype, indicating that they were likely to have been previously infected with an H5 IAV subtype. One of the samples tested positive for IAV (M gene) RNA. These results highlight the potential threat that is posed by wild birds to backyard and commercial poultry in T&T and emphasise the importance of maintaining high levels of biosecurity on poultry farms, ensuring that domestic and wild birds are not in direct or indirect contact. The results also underline the need to carry out routine surveillance for AIV in domestic and wild birds in T&T and the wider Caribbean region. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report A Multicentric T-Cell Lymphoma with a Plasmacytoid Morphology in a Dog
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5010010
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 20 January 2018
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Abstract
An 8-year-old male (neutered) Labrador with a history of erythematous skin lesions and exercise intolerance for a prolonged period was suddenly found dead. Necropsy findings revealed an infiltrative, focally extensive mass which occupied 25% of the cardiac interventricular septum. Severe endocardiosis was also
[...] Read more.
An 8-year-old male (neutered) Labrador with a history of erythematous skin lesions and exercise intolerance for a prolonged period was suddenly found dead. Necropsy findings revealed an infiltrative, focally extensive mass which occupied 25% of the cardiac interventricular septum. Severe endocardiosis was also found on the bicuspid and tricuspid valves. The submandibular lymph nodes and kidneys were bilaterally enlarged, and the pre-hepatic lymph node and spleen were also enlarged. Multiple dermal pustules were present around the mouth and on the ear, and small ulcers were present on the tongue. Histopathological examination detected the presence of neoplastic lymphocytes with a plasmacytoid morphology in these tissues as well as in the tongue and skin lesions. Immunohistochemical (CD3+/CD18+) evaluation was consistent with a T-cell lymphoma, which could be classified as a peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS). Full article
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Open AccessCase Report A Case Report of Disseminated Canine Histiocytic Sarcoma in Trinidad and Tobago
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5010009
Received: 7 November 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
Ocular histiocytic sarcomas (as a presenting part of disseminated histiocytic sarcoma) are not commonly diagnosed. A 10-year-old female intact Rottweiler presented to the School of Veterinary Medicine, Trinidad with buphthalmia and pain in the left eye. The cornea of the left eye appeared
[...] Read more.
Ocular histiocytic sarcomas (as a presenting part of disseminated histiocytic sarcoma) are not commonly diagnosed. A 10-year-old female intact Rottweiler presented to the School of Veterinary Medicine, Trinidad with buphthalmia and pain in the left eye. The cornea of the left eye appeared diffusely opaque with a conjunctival mucopurulent ocular discharge. A thorough ophthalmic assessment identified an intraocular proliferative tumor to which a unilateral enucleation was performed, however the animal died soon after. Post mortem examination and light microscopy revealed that the intraocular lesion with visceral macro-metastases was in fact a histiocytic sarcoma. Further to this, immune-phenotyping was performed to confirm the diagnosis of disseminated histiocytic sarcoma. This is the first time such a tumor has been diagnosed in Trinidad and Tobago. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report Oral Plasmacytoma in a Dog
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci4040068
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 21 November 2017 / Accepted: 6 December 2017 / Published: 14 December 2017
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Abstract
A 6-year-old male Pit bull mix dog presented for bleeding from the mouth persisting for five days. A clinical evaluation revealed a 2 × 3 cm soft tissue mandibular mass at the crown of the first premolar, as well as a non-regenerative anemia
[...] Read more.
A 6-year-old male Pit bull mix dog presented for bleeding from the mouth persisting for five days. A clinical evaluation revealed a 2 × 3 cm soft tissue mandibular mass at the crown of the first premolar, as well as a non-regenerative anemia and hyperproteinemia. Cytologic and histopathologic evaluations of the mass were compatible with an oral plasmacytoma. Full article
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