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Special Issue "Last Trends in Acoustic Sensing"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Cinzia Caliendo

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, ISC-CNR, Area della Ricerca di Roma 1, Via Salaria Km. 29,300, Monterotondo Scalo, 00015, Roma, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: acoustic wave sensors; thin piezoelectric films growth; theoretical study of the acoustic waves propagation in layered media; temperature compensated electroacoustic coupling configurations

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The aim of this special issue is to provide the latest findings of the current research in Acoustic Sensors, special addressing the improvements in the sensors design and technology fields, for innovative application in gas and liquid ambient. Authors are invited to present the advanced research trends in acoustic wave sensors technology for operation under extreme conditions (high temperature, high pressure, and caustic ambient).

The Special Issue will publish those full research, review and high rated manuscripts addressing the advances in design, fabrication, modeling, testing and characterization of cost-effective, small and high performance acoustic wave sensors.

Dr. Cinzia Caliendo
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • biosensors
  • chemical sensors
  • physical sensors
  • new piezoelectric materials
  • high temperature
  • high frequency
  • remote sensing
  • harsh environment
  • explosives detection
  • chemical warfare agents
  • temperature coefficients of elastic constants
  • pressure coefficients of elastic constants

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research

Open AccessEditorial Latest Trends in Acoustic Sensing
Sensors 2014, 14(4), 5781-5784; doi:10.3390/s140405781
Received: 18 March 2014 / Accepted: 19 March 2014 / Published: 25 March 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (79 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Acoustics-based methods offer a powerful tool for sensing applications. Acoustic sensors can be applied in many fields ranging from materials characterization, structural health monitoring, acoustic imaging, defect characterization, etc., to name just a few. A proper selection of the acoustic wave frequency
[...] Read more.
Acoustics-based methods offer a powerful tool for sensing applications. Acoustic sensors can be applied in many fields ranging from materials characterization, structural health monitoring, acoustic imaging, defect characterization, etc., to name just a few. A proper selection of the acoustic wave frequency over a wide spectrum that extends from infrasound (<20 Hz) up to ultrasound (in the GHz–band), together with a number of different propagating modes, including bulk longitudinal and shear waves, surface waves, plate modes, etc., allow acoustic tools to be successfully applied to the characterization of gaseous, solid and liquid environments. The purpose of this special issue is to provide an overview of the research trends in acoustic wave sensing through some cases that are representative of specific applications in different sensing fields. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Last Trends in Acoustic Sensing)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle 3D Joint Speaker Position and Orientation Tracking with Particle Filters
Sensors 2014, 14(2), 2259-2279; doi:10.3390/s140202259
Received: 24 December 2013 / Revised: 17 January 2014 / Accepted: 25 January 2014 / Published: 29 January 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (833 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper addresses the problem of three-dimensional speaker orientation estimation in a smart-room environment equipped with microphone arrays. A Bayesian approach is proposed to jointly track the location and orientation of an active speaker. The main motivation is that the knowledge of the
[...] Read more.
This paper addresses the problem of three-dimensional speaker orientation estimation in a smart-room environment equipped with microphone arrays. A Bayesian approach is proposed to jointly track the location and orientation of an active speaker. The main motivation is that the knowledge of the speaker orientation may yield an increased localization performance and vice versa. Assuming that the sound produced by the speaker is originated from his mouth, the center of the head is deduced based on the estimated head orientation. Moreover, the elevation angle of the head of the speaker can be partly inferred from the fast vertical movements of the computed mouth location. In order to test the performance of the proposed algorithm, a new multimodal dataset has been recorded for this purpose, where the corresponding 3D orientation angles are acquired by an inertial measurement unit (IMU) provided by accelerometers, magnetometers and gyroscopes in the three-axes. The proposed joint algorithm outperforms a two-step approach in terms of localization and orientation angle precision assessing the superiority of the joint approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Last Trends in Acoustic Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle A Stratified Acoustic Model Accounting for Phase Shifts for Underwater Acoustic Networks
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6183-6203; doi:10.3390/s130506183
Received: 6 March 2013 / Revised: 22 April 2013 / Accepted: 24 April 2013 / Published: 13 May 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (554 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Accurate acoustic channel models are critical for the study of underwater acoustic networks. Existing models include physics-based models and empirical approximation models. The former enjoy good accuracy, but incur heavy computational load, rendering them impractical in large networks. On the other hand, the
[...] Read more.
Accurate acoustic channel models are critical for the study of underwater acoustic networks. Existing models include physics-based models and empirical approximation models. The former enjoy good accuracy, but incur heavy computational load, rendering them impractical in large networks. On the other hand, the latter are computationally inexpensive but inaccurate since they do not account for the complex effects of boundary reflection losses, the multi-path phenomenon and ray bending in the stratified ocean medium. In this paper, we propose a Stratified Acoustic Model (SAM) based on frequency-independent geometrical ray tracing, accounting for each ray’s phase shift during the propagation. It is a feasible channel model for large scale underwater acoustic network simulation, allowing us to predict the transmission loss with much lower computational complexity than the traditional physics-based models. The accuracy of the model is validated via comparisons with the experimental measurements in two different oceans. Satisfactory agreements with the measurements and with other computationally intensive classical physics-based models are demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Last Trends in Acoustic Sensing)
Open AccessArticle A Mobile Acoustic Subsurface Sensing (MASS) System for Rapid Roadway Assessment
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 5881-5896; doi:10.3390/s130505881
Received: 5 March 2013 / Revised: 24 April 2013 / Accepted: 2 May 2013 / Published: 8 May 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2924 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Surface waves are commonly used for vibration-based nondestructive testing for infrastructure. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW) has been used to detect subsurface properties for geologic inspections. Recently, efforts were made to scale down these subsurface detection approaches to see how they perform
[...] Read more.
Surface waves are commonly used for vibration-based nondestructive testing for infrastructure. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW) has been used to detect subsurface properties for geologic inspections. Recently, efforts were made to scale down these subsurface detection approaches to see how they perform on small-scale structures such as concrete slabs and pavements. Additional efforts have been made to replace the traditional surface-mounted transducers with non-contact acoustic transducers. Though some success has been achieved, most of these new approaches are inefficient because they require point-to-point measurements or off-line signal analysis. This article introduces a Mobile Acoustic Subsurface Sensing system as MASS, which is an improved surface wave based implementation for measuring the subsurface profile of roadways. The compact MASS system is a 3-wheeled cart outfitted with an electromagnetic impact source, distance register, non-contact acoustic sensors and data acquisition/ processing equipment. The key advantage of the MASS system is the capability to collect measurements continuously at walking speed in an automatic way. The fast scan and real-time analysis advantages are based upon the non-contact acoustic sensing and fast air-coupled surface wave analysis program. This integration of hardware and software makes the MASS system an efficient mobile prototype for the field test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Last Trends in Acoustic Sensing)
Open AccessArticle A PARALIND Decomposition-Based Coherent Two-Dimensional Direction of Arrival Estimation Algorithm for Acoustic Vector-Sensor Arrays
Sensors 2013, 13(4), 5302-5316; doi:10.3390/s130405302
Received: 20 February 2013 / Revised: 28 March 2013 / Accepted: 4 April 2013 / Published: 19 April 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (315 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we combine the acoustic vector-sensor array parameter estimation problem with the parallel profiles with linear dependencies (PARALIND) model, which was originally applied to biology and chemistry. Exploiting the PARALIND decomposition approach, we propose a blind coherent two-dimensional direction of arrival
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we combine the acoustic vector-sensor array parameter estimation problem with the parallel profiles with linear dependencies (PARALIND) model, which was originally applied to biology and chemistry. Exploiting the PARALIND decomposition approach, we propose a blind coherent two-dimensional direction of arrival (2D-DOA) estimation algorithm for arbitrarily spaced acoustic vector-sensor arrays subject to unknown locations. The proposed algorithm works well to achieve automatically paired azimuth and elevation angles for coherent and incoherent angle estimation of acoustic vector-sensor arrays, as well as the paired correlated matrix of the sources. Our algorithm, in contrast with conventional coherent angle estimation algorithms such as the forward backward spatial smoothing (FBSS) estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance technique (ESPRIT) algorithm, not only has much better angle estimation performance, even for closely-spaced sources, but is also available for arbitrary arrays. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of our algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Last Trends in Acoustic Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Ultrasound Indoor Positioning System Based on a Low-Power Wireless Sensor Network Providing Sub-Centimeter Accuracy
Sensors 2013, 13(3), 3501-3526; doi:10.3390/s130303501
Received: 22 January 2013 / Revised: 4 March 2013 / Accepted: 11 March 2013 / Published: 13 March 2013
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (2164 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes the TELIAMADE system, a new indoor positioning system based on time-of-flight (TOF) of ultrasonic signal to estimate the distance between a receiver node and a transmitter node. TELIAMADE system consists of a set of wireless nodes equipped with a radio
[...] Read more.
This paper describes the TELIAMADE system, a new indoor positioning system based on time-of-flight (TOF) of ultrasonic signal to estimate the distance between a receiver node and a transmitter node. TELIAMADE system consists of a set of wireless nodes equipped with a radio module for communication and a module for the transmission and reception of ultrasound. The access to the ultrasonic channel is managed by applying a synchronization algorithm based on a time-division multiplexing (TDMA) scheme. The ultrasonic signal is transmitted using a carrier frequency of 40 kHz and the TOF measurement is estimated by applying a quadrature detector to the signal obtained at the A/D converter output. Low sampling frequencies of 17.78 kHz or even 12.31 kHz are possible using quadrature sampling in order to optimize memory requirements and to reduce the computational cost in signal processing. The distance is calculated from the TOF taking into account the speed of sound. An excellent accuracy in the estimation of the TOF is achieved using parabolic interpolation to detect of maximum of the signal envelope at the matched filter output. The signal phase information is also used for enhancing the TOF measurement accuracy. Experimental results show a root mean square error (rmse) less than 2 mm and a standard deviation less than 0.3 mm for pseudorange measurements in the range of distances between 2 and 6 m. The system location accuracy is also evaluated by applying multilateration. A sub-centimeter location accuracy is achieved with an average rmse of 9.6 mm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Last Trends in Acoustic Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Cell-Based Hybrid Acoustic Wave Biosensor with Impedimetric Sensing Capabilities
Sensors 2013, 13(3), 3039-3055; doi:10.3390/s130303039
Received: 31 December 2012 / Revised: 28 January 2013 / Accepted: 20 February 2013 / Published: 4 March 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1170 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel multiparametric biosensor system based on living cells will be presented. The biosensor system includes two biosensing techniques on a single device: resonant frequency measurements and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS). The multiparametric sensor system is based on the innovative use of
[...] Read more.
A novel multiparametric biosensor system based on living cells will be presented. The biosensor system includes two biosensing techniques on a single device: resonant frequency measurements and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS). The multiparametric sensor system is based on the innovative use of the upper electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) resonator as working electrode for the ECIS technique. The QCM acoustic wave sensor consists of a thin AT-cut quartz substrate with two gold electrodes on opposite sides. For integration of the QCM with the ECIS technique a semicircular counter electrode was fabricated near the upper electrode on the same side of the quartz crystal. Bovine aortic endothelial live cells (BAECs) were successfully cultured on this hybrid biosensor. Finite element modeling of the bulk acoustic wave resonator using COMSOL simulations was performed. Simultaneous gravimetric and impedimetric measurements performed over a period of time on the same cell culture were conducted to validate the device’s sensitivity. The time necessary for the BAEC cells to attach and form a compact monolayer on the biosensor was 35~45 minutes for 1.5 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs; 60 minutes for 2.0 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs; 70 minutes for 3.0 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs; and 100 minutes for 5.0 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs. It was demonstrated that this time is the same for both gravimetric and impedimetric measurements. This hybrid biosensor will be employed in the future for water toxicity detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Last Trends in Acoustic Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Multi Reflection of Lamb Wave Emission in an Acoustic Waveguide Sensor
Sensors 2013, 13(3), 2777-2785; doi:10.3390/s130302777
Received: 19 December 2012 / Revised: 9 February 2013 / Accepted: 18 February 2013 / Published: 27 February 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (637 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, an acoustic waveguide sensor based on multiple mode conversion of surface acoustic waves at the solid—liquid interfaces has been introduced for the concentration measurement of binary and ternary mixtures, liquid level sensing, investigation of spatial inhomogenities or bubble detection. In this contribution
[...] Read more.
Recently, an acoustic waveguide sensor based on multiple mode conversion of surface acoustic waves at the solid—liquid interfaces has been introduced for the concentration measurement of binary and ternary mixtures, liquid level sensing, investigation of spatial inhomogenities or bubble detection. In this contribution the sound wave propagation within this acoustic waveguide sensor is visualized by Schlieren imaging for continuous and burst operation the first time. In the acoustic waveguide the antisymmetrical zero order Lamb wave mode is excited by a single phase transducer of 1 MHz on thin glass plates of 1 mm thickness. By contact to the investigated liquid Lamb waves propagating on the first plate emit pressure waves into the adjacent liquid, which excites Lamb waves on the second plate, what again causes pressure waves traveling inside the liquid back to the first plate and so on. The Schlieren images prove this multi reflection within the acoustic waveguide, which confirms former considerations and calculations based on the receiver signal. With this knowledge the sensor concepts with the acoustic waveguide sensor can be interpreted in a better manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Last Trends in Acoustic Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Statistical Modeling of Large-Scale Signal Path Loss in Underwater Acoustic Networks
Sensors 2013, 13(2), 2279-2294; doi:10.3390/s130202279
Received: 28 December 2012 / Revised: 6 February 2013 / Accepted: 7 February 2013 / Published: 8 February 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (761 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In an underwater acoustic channel, the propagation conditions are known to vary in time, causing the deviation of the received signal strength from the nominal value predicted by a deterministic propagation model. To facilitate a large-scale system design in such conditions (e.g., power
[...] Read more.
In an underwater acoustic channel, the propagation conditions are known to vary in time, causing the deviation of the received signal strength from the nominal value predicted by a deterministic propagation model. To facilitate a large-scale system design in such conditions (e.g., power allocation), we have developed a statistical propagation model in which the transmission loss is treated as a random variable. By applying repetitive computation to the acoustic field, using ray tracing for a set of varying environmental conditions (surface height, wave activity, small node displacements around nominal locations, etc.), an ensemble of transmission losses is compiled and later used to infer the statistical model parameters. A reasonable agreement is found with log-normal distribution, whose mean obeys a log-distance increases, and whose variance appears to be constant for a certain range of inter-node distances in a given deployment location. The statistical model is deemed useful for higher-level system planning, where simulation is needed to assess the performance of candidate network protocols under various resource allocation policies, i.e., to determine the transmit power and bandwidth allocation necessary to achieve a desired level of performance (connectivity, throughput, reliability, etc.). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Last Trends in Acoustic Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Lamb Waves Propagation along 3C-SiC/AlN Membranes for Application in Temperature-Compensated, High-Sensitivity Gravimetric Sensors
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 550-564; doi:10.3390/s130100550
Received: 28 October 2012 / Revised: 14 December 2012 / Accepted: 19 December 2012 / Published: 2 January 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (961 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The propagation of the fundamental quasi-symmetric Lamb mode S0 travelling along 3C-SiC/c-AlN composite plates is theoretically studied with respect to the AlN and SiC film thickness, the acoustic wave propagation direction and the electrical boundary conditions. The temperature effects on
[...] Read more.
The propagation of the fundamental quasi-symmetric Lamb mode S0 travelling along 3C-SiC/c-AlN composite plates is theoretically studied with respect to the AlN and SiC film thickness, the acoustic wave propagation direction and the electrical boundary conditions. The temperature effects on the phase velocity have been considered for four AlN/SiC-based electroacoustic coupling configurations, specifically addressing the design of temperature-compensated, enhanced-coupling, GHz-range electroacoustic devices. The gravimetric sensitivity and resolution of the four temperature-stable SiC/AlN composite structures are theoretically investigated with respect to both the AlN and SiC sensing surface. The SiC/AlN-based sensor performances are compared to those of surface acoustic waves and Lamb S0 mode mass sensors implemented on bulk conventional piezoelectric materials and on thin suspended membranes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Last Trends in Acoustic Sensing)
Open AccessArticle A Synthetic Phased Array Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor for Quantifying Bolt Tension
Sensors 2012, 12(9), 12265-12278; doi:10.3390/s120912265
Received: 10 July 2012 / Revised: 27 August 2012 / Accepted: 4 September 2012 / Published: 7 September 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (904 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we report our findings on implementing a synthetic phased array surface acoustic wave sensor to quantify bolt tension. Maintaining proper bolt tension is important in many fields such as for ensuring safe operation of civil infrastructures. Significant advantages of this
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we report our findings on implementing a synthetic phased array surface acoustic wave sensor to quantify bolt tension. Maintaining proper bolt tension is important in many fields such as for ensuring safe operation of civil infrastructures. Significant advantages of this relatively simple methodology is its capability to assess bolt tension without any contact with the bolt, thus enabling measurement at inaccessible locations, multiple bolt measurement capability at a time, not requiring data collection during the installation and no calibration requirements. We performed detailed experiments on a custom-built flexible bench-top experimental setup consisting of 1018 steel plate of 12.7 mm (½ in) thickness, a 6.4 mm (¼ in) grade 8 bolt and a stainless steel washer with 19 mm (¾ in) of external diameter. Our results indicate that this method is not only capable of clearly distinguishing properly bolted joints from loosened joints but also capable of quantifying how loose the bolt actually is. We also conducted detailed signal-to-noise (SNR) analysis and showed that the SNR value for the entire bolt tension range was sufficient for image reconstruction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Last Trends in Acoustic Sensing)
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