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Special Issue "Low k Dielectic Materials"

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A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Rajendra Singh (Website)

The Holcombe Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Clemson University, 105 Riggs Hall, Room 206, Clemson, S.C. 29634, USA
Fax: +1-864-656-5910

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

For Low k dielectric materials, the value of dielectric constant is less than the dielectric constant of silicon dioxide. Such materials are of great importance for multi-level interconnections of nanoelectronics and radio frequency (RF) devices and circuits.  Other applications include optoelectronics, 3-D integrated circuits, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), nanoelectromechanical (NEMS), sensors and detectors and packaging of various types of devices and circuits. All topics related to synthesis, and properties of low-k dielectrics, various processing techniques, process integration, performance and reliability of low-K based devices, circuits and systems are of interest for this journal issue.

Dr. Rajendra Singh
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • Low k dielectrics
  • thermal properties
  • structural properties
  • process integration
  • Low k and MEMS
  • Low k and NEMS
  • R-F devices and circuits
  • Low k and 3-D integrated circuits
  • multi-level Interconnections
  • packaging
  • reliability
  • yield

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle A Study of Trimethylsilane (3MS) and Tetramethylsilane (4MS) Based α-SiCN:H/α-SiCO:H Diffusion Barrier Films
Materials 2012, 5(3), 377-384; doi:10.3390/ma5030377
Received: 19 December 2011 / Revised: 31 January 2012 / Accepted: 15 February 2012 / Published: 2 March 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Amorphous nitrogen-doped silicon carbide (α-SiCN:H) films have been used as a Cu penetration diffusion barrier and interconnect etch stop layer in the below 90-nanometer ultra-large scale integration (ULSI) manufacturing technology. In this study, the etching stop layers were deposited by using trimethylsilane [...] Read more.
Amorphous nitrogen-doped silicon carbide (α-SiCN:H) films have been used as a Cu penetration diffusion barrier and interconnect etch stop layer in the below 90-nanometer ultra-large scale integration (ULSI) manufacturing technology. In this study, the etching stop layers were deposited by using trimethylsilane (3MS) or tetramethylsilane (4MS) with ammonia by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) followed by a procedure for tetra-ethoxyl silane (TEOS) oxide. The depth profile of Cu distribution examined by second ion mass spectroscopy (SIMs) showed that 3MS α-SiCN:H exhibited a better barrier performance than the 4MS film, which was revealed by the Cu signal. The FTIR spectra also showed the intensity of Si-CH3 stretch mode in the α-SiCN:H film deposited by 3MS was higher than that deposited by 4MS. A novel multi structure of oxygen-doped silicon carbide (SiC:O) substituted TEOS oxide capped on 4MS α-SiC:N film was also examined. In addition to this, the new multi etch stop layers can be deposited together with the same tool which can thus eliminate the effect of the vacuum break and accompanying environmental contamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low k Dielectic Materials)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Time Dependent Dielectric Breakdown in Copper Low-k Interconnects: Mechanisms and Reliability Models
Materials 2012, 5(9), 1602-1625; doi:10.3390/ma5091602
Received: 25 June 2012 / Revised: 30 August 2012 / Accepted: 4 September 2012 / Published: 12 September 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (301 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The time dependent dielectric breakdown phenomenon in copper low-k damascene interconnects for ultra large-scale integration is reviewed. The loss of insulation between neighboring interconnects represents an emerging back end-of-the-line reliability issue that is not fully understood. After describing the main dielectric leakage [...] Read more.
The time dependent dielectric breakdown phenomenon in copper low-k damascene interconnects for ultra large-scale integration is reviewed. The loss of insulation between neighboring interconnects represents an emerging back end-of-the-line reliability issue that is not fully understood. After describing the main dielectric leakage mechanisms in low-k materials (Poole-Frenkel and Schottky emission), the major dielectric reliability models that had appeared in the literature are discussed, namely: the Lloyd model, 1/E model, thermochemical E model, E1/2 models, E2 model and the Haase model. These models can be broadly categorized into those that consider only intrinsic breakdown (Lloyd, 1/E, E and Haase) and those that take into account copper migration in low-k materials (E1/2, E2). For each model, the physical assumptions and the proposed breakdown mechanism will be discussed, together with the quantitative relationship predicting the time to breakdown and supporting experimental data. Experimental attempts on validation of dielectric reliability models using data obtained from low field stressing are briefly discussed. The phenomenon of soft breakdown, which often precedes hard breakdown in porous ultra low-k materials, is highlighted for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low k Dielectic Materials)
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