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Special Issue "Creep and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures"

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A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Structure Analysis and Characterization".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Bill Plumbrige (Website)

Materials Engineering, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, UK
Phone: +44 1908 652 630
Fax: +44 1908 653 858

Special Issue Information

Creep is time-dependent deformation under constant load or stress. It has been recognised as an engineering challenge for more than a century, and traditionally, the key design parameter has been ‘time to fracture’ as a function of applied stress and temperature. More recently, in applications, such as close-tolerance turbines and miniaturised equipment, ‘time to a critical strain’ has become a more appropriate failure criterion.

It is often regarded as a high temperature phenomenon, although this can be misleading since it is the homologous temperature (for metallic materials, this is the ratio of the current temperature to the melting temperature, expressed in degrees Kelvin) that is the salient factor in determining the significance of creep. Consequently, creep may still be a problem in solders for electronics at temperatures as low as −50 °C.

Creep may occur in all classes of materials (metals, ceramics, polymers and composites) although the phenomena involved are quite disparate. Even for a single material type, such as metals, one or more mechanisms may be involved, depending upon the operating conditions (stress, temperature, strain rate). For example, the dominant deformation process may be occurring at the grain boundaries or within the grains themselves. Further sub divisions are possible which explains the plethora of constitutive expressions for describing creep that have been developed over the years. With the advent of further miniaturisation and nanostructures, their number will undoubtedly mushroom, but the need to identify the dominant creep mechanism, both in the laboratory and in the field, will remain paramount, if reliable creep performance is to be achieved.

That this Special Issue contains a diverse range of papers should be regarded as strength. Potentially, there is much to gain from cross-fertilisation between different material-specific and application-specific approaches.

Prof. Dr. Bill J. Plumbridge
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • creep processes in materials
  • failure criteria
  • life prediction
  • dominant mechanisms

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Strain Measurements within Fibreboard. Part III: Analyzing the Process Zone at the Crack Tip of Medium Density Fiberboards (MDF) Double Cantilever I-Beam Specimens
Materials 2012, 5(11), 2190-2204; doi:10.3390/ma5112190
Received: 13 September 2012 / Revised: 15 October 2012 / Accepted: 29 October 2012 / Published: 7 November 2012
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Abstract
This paper is the third part of a study dealing with the mechanical and fracture mechanical characterization of Medium Density Fiberboards (MDF). In the first part, an analysis of internal bond strength testing was performed and in the second part MDF was [...] Read more.
This paper is the third part of a study dealing with the mechanical and fracture mechanical characterization of Medium Density Fiberboards (MDF). In the first part, an analysis of internal bond strength testing was performed and in the second part MDF was analyzed by means of the wedge splitting experiment; this part deals with the double cantilever I beam test, which is designed for measuring the fracture energy as well as stress intensity factor in Mode I. For a comparison of isotropic and orthotropic material behavior, finite element modeling was performed. In addition to the calculation of fracture energy the stress intensity factor was analyzed by means of finite elements simulation and calculation. In order to analyze strain deformations and the process zone, electronic speckle pattern interferometry measurements were performed. The results revealed an elongated process zone and lower results for KIC if compared to the wedge splitting experiment. The Gf numbers are higher compared to the wedge splitting results and can be explained by the thicker process zone formed during the crack propagation. The process zone width on its part is influenced by the stiff reinforcements and yields a similar crack surface as with the internal bond test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Creep and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures)
Open AccessArticle Creep Behavior of a Sn-Ag-Bi Pb-Free Solder
Materials 2012, 5(11), 2151-2175; doi:10.3390/ma5112151
Received: 28 July 2012 / Revised: 27 September 2012 / Accepted: 18 October 2012 / Published: 2 November 2012
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Abstract
Compression creep tests were performed on the ternary 91.84Sn-3.33Ag-4.83Bi (wt.%, abbreviated Sn-Ag-Bi) Pb-free alloy. The test temperatures were: −25 °C, 25 °C, 75 °C, 125 °C, and 160 °C (± 0.5 °C). Four loads were used at the two lowest temperatures and [...] Read more.
Compression creep tests were performed on the ternary 91.84Sn-3.33Ag-4.83Bi (wt.%, abbreviated Sn-Ag-Bi) Pb-free alloy. The test temperatures were: −25 °C, 25 °C, 75 °C, 125 °C, and 160 °C (± 0.5 °C). Four loads were used at the two lowest temperatures and five at the higher temperatures. The specimens were tested in the as-fabricated condition or after having been subjected to one of two air aging conditions: 24 hours at either 125 °C or 150 °C. The strain-time curves exhibited frequent occurrences of negative creep and small-scale fluctuations, particularly at the slower strain rates, that were indicative of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) activity. The source of tertiary creep behavior at faster strain rates was likely to also be DRX rather than a damage accumulation mechanism. Overall, the strain-time curves did not display a consistent trend that could be directly attributed to the aging condition. The sinh law equation satisfactorily represented the minimum strain rate as a function of stress and temperature so as to investigate the deformation rate kinetics: dε/dtmin = Asinhn (ασ) exp (−ΔH/RT). The values of α, n, and  ΔH were in the following ranges (±95% confidence interval): α, 0.010–0.015 (±0.005 1/MPa); n, 2.2–3.1 (±0.5); and ΔH, 54–66 (±8 kJ/mol). The rate kinetics analysis indicated that short-circuit diffusion was a contributing mechanism to dislocation motion during creep. The rate kinetics analysis also determined that a minimum creep rate trend could not be developed between the as-fabricated versus aged conditions. This study showed that the elevated temperature aging treatments introduced multiple changes to the Sn-Ag-Bi microstructure that did not result in a simple loss (“softening”) of its mechanical strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Creep and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures)
Open AccessArticle Strain Measurements within Fibre Boards. Part II: Strain Concentrations at the Crack Tip of MDF Specimens Tested by the Wedge Splitting Method
Materials 2012, 5(8), 1495-1507; doi:10.3390/ma5081495
Received: 27 June 2012 / Revised: 17 August 2012 / Accepted: 21 August 2012 / Published: 23 August 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1131 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This is the second part of an article series where the mechanical and fracture mechanical properties of medium density fiberboard (MDF) were studied. While the first part of the series focused on internal bond strength and density profiles, this article discusses the [...] Read more.
This is the second part of an article series where the mechanical and fracture mechanical properties of medium density fiberboard (MDF) were studied. While the first part of the series focused on internal bond strength and density profiles, this article discusses the fracture mechanical properties of the core layer. Fracture properties were studied with a wedge splitting setup. The critical stress intensity factors as well as the specific fracture energies were determined. Critical stress intensity factors were calculated from maximum splitting force and two-dimensional isotropic finite elements simulations of the specimen geometry. Size and shape of micro crack zone were measured with electronic laser speckle interferometry. The process zone length was approx. 5 mm. The specific fracture energy was determined to be 45.2 ± 14.4 J/m2 and the critical stress intensity factor was 0.11 ± 0.02 MPa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Creep and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures)
Open AccessArticle Time-Dependent Damage Investigation of Rock Mass in an In Situ Experimental Tunnel
Materials 2012, 5(8), 1389-1403; doi:10.3390/ma5081389
Received: 28 March 2012 / Revised: 7 August 2012 / Accepted: 8 August 2012 / Published: 16 August 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1171 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In underground tunnels or caverns, time-dependent deformation or failure of rock mass, such as extending cracks, gradual rock falls, etc., are a costly irritant and a major safety concern if the time-dependent damage of surrounding rock is serious. To understand [...] Read more.
In underground tunnels or caverns, time-dependent deformation or failure of rock mass, such as extending cracks, gradual rock falls, etc., are a costly irritant and a major safety concern if the time-dependent damage of surrounding rock is serious. To understand the damage evolution of rock mass in underground engineering, an in situ experimental testing was carried out in a large belowground tunnel with a scale of 28.5 m in width, 21 m in height and 352 m in length. The time-dependent damage of rock mass was detected in succession by an ultrasonic wave test after excavation. The testing results showed that the time-dependent damage of rock mass could last a long time, i.e., nearly 30 days. Regression analysis of damage factors defined by wave velocity, resulted in the time-dependent evolutional damage equation of rock mass, which corresponded with logarithmic format. A damage viscoelastic-plastic model was developed to describe the exposed time-dependent deterioration of rock mass by field test, such as convergence of time-dependent damage, deterioration of elastic modules and logarithmic format of damage factor. Furthermore, the remedial measures for damaged surrounding rock were discussed based on the measured results and the conception of damage compensation, which provides new clues for underground engineering design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Creep and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures)
Open AccessArticle Influences of Sample Preparation on Nanoindentation Behavior of a Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass
Materials 2012, 5(6), 1033-1039; doi:10.3390/ma5061033
Received: 6 April 2012 / Revised: 16 May 2012 / Accepted: 29 May 2012 / Published: 1 June 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (112 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Influences of two different sample preparation methods, mechanical polishing and plunge cutting, on nanoindentation behavior of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass were studied. Mechanical polishing suppresses the serrated flow but promotes the creep. In contrast, plunge cutting promotes the serrated flow but [...] Read more.
Influences of two different sample preparation methods, mechanical polishing and plunge cutting, on nanoindentation behavior of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass were studied. Mechanical polishing suppresses the serrated flow but promotes the creep. In contrast, plunge cutting promotes the serrated flow but suppresses the creep. However, hardness and elastic modulus obtained from these two methods are nearly the same. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Creep and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures)
Open AccessArticle Surface Fractal Analysis for Estimating the Fracture Energy Absorption of Nanoparticle Reinforced Composites
Materials 2012, 5(5), 922-936; doi:10.3390/ma5050922
Received: 19 March 2012 / Revised: 8 May 2012 / Accepted: 11 May 2012 / Published: 23 May 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (222 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, the fractal dimensions of failure surfaces of vinyl ester based nanocomposites are estimated using two classical methods, Vertical Section Method (VSM) and Slit Island Method (SIM), based on the processing of 3D digital microscopic images. Self-affine fractal geometry has [...] Read more.
In this study, the fractal dimensions of failure surfaces of vinyl ester based nanocomposites are estimated using two classical methods, Vertical Section Method (VSM) and Slit Island Method (SIM), based on the processing of 3D digital microscopic images. Self-affine fractal geometry has been observed in the experimentally obtained failure surfaces of graphite platelet reinforced nanocomposites subjected to quasi-static uniaxial tensile and low velocity punch-shear loading. Fracture energy and fracture toughness are estimated analytically from the surface fractal dimensionality. Sensitivity studies show an exponential dependency of fracture energy and fracture toughness on the fractal dimensionality. Contribution of fracture energy to the total energy absorption of these nanoparticle reinforced composites is demonstrated. For the graphite platelet reinforced nanocomposites investigated, surface fractal analysis has depicted the probable ductile or brittle fracture propagation mechanism, depending upon the rate of loading. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Creep and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Transformation-Induced Creep and Creep Recovery of Shape Memory Alloy
Materials 2012, 5(5), 909-921; doi:10.3390/ma5050909
Received: 14 March 2012 / Revised: 9 May 2012 / Accepted: 11 May 2012 / Published: 22 May 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (894 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
If the shape memory alloy is subjected to the subloop loading under the stress-controlled condition, creep and creep recovery can appear based on the martensitic transformation. In the design of shape memory alloy elements, these deformation properties are important since the deflection [...] Read more.
If the shape memory alloy is subjected to the subloop loading under the stress-controlled condition, creep and creep recovery can appear based on the martensitic transformation. In the design of shape memory alloy elements, these deformation properties are important since the deflection of shape memory alloy elements can change under constant stress. The conditions for the progress of the martensitic transformation are discussed based on the kinetics of the martensitic transformation for the shape memory alloy. During loading under constant stress rate, temperature increases due to the stress-induced martensitic transformation. If stress is held constant during the martensitic transformation stage in the loading process, temperature decreases and the condition for the progress of the martensitic transformation is satisfied, resulting in the transformation-induced creep deformation. If stress is held constant during the reverse transformation stage in the unloading process, creep recovery appears due to the reverse transformation. The details for these thermomechanical properties are investigated experimentally for TiNi shape memory alloy, which is most widely used in practical applications. The volume fraction of the martensitic phase increases in proportion to an increase in creep strain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Creep and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures)

Review

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Open AccessReview Strain Measurements within Fiber Boards. Part I: Inhomogeneous Strain Distribution within Medium Density Fiberboards (MDF) Loaded Perpendicularly to the Plane of the Board
Materials 2012, 5(6), 1115-1124; doi:10.3390/ma5061115
Received: 16 May 2012 / Revised: 14 June 2012 / Accepted: 15 June 2012 / Published: 19 June 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (381 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Internal bond strength testing is a widely used approach for testing quality traits of wood based panels. Generally, failure of internal bond specimens is due to adhesion and/or wood failure in the specimen. It has been reported that a composite product with [...] Read more.
Internal bond strength testing is a widely used approach for testing quality traits of wood based panels. Generally, failure of internal bond specimens is due to adhesion and/or wood failure in the specimen. It has been reported that a composite product with a large variation in the vertical density profile fails in the center part of the board which is either the middle of the core layer or the transition zone between core layer and face layer. The density in the failure zone is typically 50% lower than the maximum density in the face layers. The aim of this study was to analyze the strain distribution in a specimen under tension perpendicular to the panel plane. The results showed that a high variety of strain magnitude occurred in the specimen. The strain is either aligned with the tension direction or a tension zone is built in one of the edge zones leading to failure. Vector graphics of the specimen show the problematic test setup of internal bond strength measurement. Strain spots in the edges lead to the assumption of an uneven stress distribution due to the momentum which results from non-perfect alignment or irregularities in the test setup. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Creep and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures)

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