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Special Issue "Wind Energy 2011"

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A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Simon J. Watson (Website)

Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology, Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Holywell Park, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU, UK
Fax: +44 1509 635341
Interests: wind power; wind resource assessment; wind turbine wake modeling; climate change impacts on wind energy; integration of renewable energy into networks; wind turbine condition monitoring

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This special issue entitled “Wind Energy 2011” will be devoted to new developments in the field of wind energy. Articles related to the state of the art for wind turbines, supporting technology and wind energy in general will be considered, however, articles are particularly encouraged in the areas listed below. Articles are sought which relate to novel wind turbine concepts particularly with regard to very large (>5MW) machines and supporting infrastructure. This includes areas such as novel concepts in the design of drive trains, generators, controllers, blades and grid connections. Wind turbine reliability and availability is an area of particular concern to the wind energy industry and articles which relate to novel concepts in wind turbine health monitoring, fault detection and wind turbine reliability are encouraged. The use of numerical models in the design, siting and operation of wind turbines is increasing with advances in computing technology. Articles which deal with use of such models in areas such as advanced wind turbine control, loading, aeroelastics, aeroacoustics, wake modelling, wind resource assessment, wind power forecasting and general turbine design would be of significant interest. Accurate measurement of the wind is critical to wind farm planning. The use of advanced measurement techniques such as LIDAR and SODAR has attracted much attention recently. Articles which deal with the application of more advanced wind measurement methods including remote sensing is encouraged. The impact of climate change on regional wind resources is far from certain. Articles which deal with the use of historical and model predicted data to infer potential changes in regional wind climates would be of particular interest.

Simon J. Watson
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • wind energy
  • wind turbine
  • wind resource
  • wind turbine design
  • condition monitoring
  • reliability
  • measurement and methods
  • numerical modelling
  • climate change

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Analysis of Wind Generator Operations under Unbalanced Voltage Dips in the Light of the Spanish Grid Code
Energies 2011, 4(8), 1148-1162; doi:10.3390/en4081148
Received: 29 June 2011 / Revised: 20 July 2011 / Accepted: 22 July 2011 / Published: 8 August 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1789 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Operation of doubly fed induction generators subjected to transient unbalanced voltage dips is analyzed in this article to verify the fulfillment of the Spanish grid code. Akagi’s p-q theory is not used for this study, because control of the electronic converter is [...] Read more.
Operation of doubly fed induction generators subjected to transient unbalanced voltage dips is analyzed in this article to verify the fulfillment of the Spanish grid code. Akagi’s p-q theory is not used for this study, because control of the electronic converter is not the main goal of the paper, but rather to know the physical phenomena involved in the wind turbine when voltage dips occur. Hence, the magnetizing reactive power of the induction generators and their components, which are related with the magnetic fields and determine operation of these machines, are expressed through the reactive power formulations established in the technical literature by three well-known approaches: the delayed voltage (DV) method, Czarnecki’s Current’s Physical Components (CPC) theory and Emanuel’s approach. Non-fundamental and negative-sequence components of the magnetizing reactive power are respectively established to define the effects of the distortion and voltage imbalances on the magnetic fields and electromagnetic torques. Also, fundamental-frequency positive-sequence and negative-sequence reactive powers are decomposed into two components: due to the reactive loads and caused by the imbalances. This decomposition provides additional information about the effects of the imbalances on the main magnetic field and electromagnetic torque of the induction generator. All the above mentioned reactive powers are finally applied to one actual wind turbine subjected to a two-phase voltage dip in order to explain its operation under such transient conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Energy 2011)
Open AccessArticle Petri Net Model and Reliability Evaluation for Wind Turbine Hydraulic Variable Pitch Systems
Energies 2011, 4(6), 978-997; doi:10.3390/en4060978
Received: 11 March 2011 / Revised: 8 June 2011 / Accepted: 16 June 2011 / Published: 23 June 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (804 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Based on an analysis of the working principles of the hydraulic variable pitch system of a wind turbine, a novel Petri net model and reliability evaluation method are proposed. First, Petri net theory is adopted to build a model for each discrete [...] Read more.
Based on an analysis of the working principles of the hydraulic variable pitch system of a wind turbine, a novel Petri net model and reliability evaluation method are proposed. First, Petri net theory is adopted to build a model for each discrete state of the operation of the hydraulic pitch system of the wind turbine and at the same time a fault Petri net model is established. Then through qualitative analysis and quantitative calculations based on the fault Petri net, the system reliability indexes are obtained. During the qualitative analysis process, in order to more conveniently find the minimal cut sets of the fault Petri net, a Visual C++ 6.0-based algorithm is compiled and the minimal cut sets are tested correctly with another method. During the quantitative calculation process, the fault probability has been obtained from the equations according to the fault probability of libraries and transitions between different states. Not only does the proposed Petri net describe the structure, function and operation of the hydraulic pitch system with a graphic language, but the fault Petri net model can also clearly express the logical relations among faults. The novel Petri net model offers simple calculations and the prospect of broad applicability and the new reliability evaluation method provides an important reference for the performance evaluation of these systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Energy 2011)
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Open AccessArticle A Review of Current Issues in State-of-Art of Wind Farm Overvoltage Protection
Energies 2011, 4(4), 644-668; doi:10.3390/en4040644
Received: 17 January 2011 / Revised: 8 April 2011 / Accepted: 18 April 2011 / Published: 19 April 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (846 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper elaborates on several important outstanding issues in the state-of-art of overvoltage protection selection for modern wind farms. The lack of experience with this still-new technology, together with the inherent complexity of wind farm electrical systems, entails several unresolved issues pertinent [...] Read more.
This paper elaborates on several important outstanding issues in the state-of-art of overvoltage protection selection for modern wind farms. The lack of experience with this still-new technology, together with the inherent complexity of wind farm electrical systems, entails several unresolved issues pertinent to the topic of overvoltage protection, particularly in relation to lightning-initiated surges. Firstly, several aspects of the wind turbine lightning incidence, along with the issues related to the selection of lightning current parameters (pertinent to the wind farm overvoltage protection), are addressed in this paper. Secondly, several issues in the state-of-art models of the wind farm electrical systems—for the lightning surge analysis—are addressed and discussed. Here, a well-known ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) software package is often employed, with all of its benefits and some limitations. Thirdly, the metal-oxide surge arrester energy capability and the issues related to the selection of the surge arrester rated energy—in relation to the direct lightning strikes to wind turbines—is addressed. Finally, some general considerations concerning the overvoltage protection selection for wind farm projects, particularly regarding the installation of the metal-oxide surge arresters, are provided as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Energy 2011)
Open AccessArticle Latest Developments in Numerical Wind Synopsis Prediction Using the RIAM-COMPACT® CFD Model—Design Wind Speed Evaluation and Wind Risk (Terrain-Induced Turbulence) Diagnostics in Japan
Energies 2011, 4(3), 458-474; doi:10.3390/en4030458
Received: 17 December 2010 / Revised: 17 February 2011 / Accepted: 4 March 2011 / Published: 7 March 2011
PDF Full-text (1265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Because a significant portion of the topography in Japan is characterized by steep, complex terrain, which results in a complex spatial distribution of wind speed, great care is necessary for selecting a site for the construction of Wind Turbine Generators (WTGs). We [...] Read more.
Because a significant portion of the topography in Japan is characterized by steep, complex terrain, which results in a complex spatial distribution of wind speed, great care is necessary for selecting a site for the construction of Wind Turbine Generators (WTGs). We have developed a CFD model for unsteady flow called Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, COMputational Prediction of Airflow over Complex Terrain (RIAM-COMPACT®). The RIAM-COMPACT® CFD model is based on Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) technique. The computational domain of RIAM-COMPACT® can extend from several meters to several kilometers, and RIAM-COMPACT® can predict airflow and gas diffusion over complex terrains with high accuracy. First, the present paper proposes a technique for evaluating the deployment location of WTGs. Next, wind simulation of an actual wind farm was executed using the high resolution elevation data. As a result, an appropriate point and an inappropriate point for locating WTGs were shown based on the numerical results obtained. This cause was found to be a topographical irregularity in front of WTGs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Energy 2011)

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