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Energies 2011, 4(8), 1148-1162; doi:10.3390/en4081148
Article

Analysis of Wind Generator Operations under Unbalanced Voltage Dips in the Light of the Spanish Grid Code

 and *
Received: 29 June 2011; in revised form: 20 July 2011 / Accepted: 22 July 2011 / Published: 8 August 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Energy 2011)
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Abstract: Operation of doubly fed induction generators subjected to transient unbalanced voltage dips is analyzed in this article to verify the fulfillment of the Spanish grid code. Akagi’s p-q theory is not used for this study, because control of the electronic converter is not the main goal of the paper, but rather to know the physical phenomena involved in the wind turbine when voltage dips occur. Hence, the magnetizing reactive power of the induction generators and their components, which are related with the magnetic fields and determine operation of these machines, are expressed through the reactive power formulations established in the technical literature by three well-known approaches: the delayed voltage (DV) method, Czarnecki’s Current’s Physical Components (CPC) theory and Emanuel’s approach. Non-fundamental and negative-sequence components of the magnetizing reactive power are respectively established to define the effects of the distortion and voltage imbalances on the magnetic fields and electromagnetic torques. Also, fundamental-frequency positive-sequence and negative-sequence reactive powers are decomposed into two components: due to the reactive loads and caused by the imbalances. This decomposition provides additional information about the effects of the imbalances on the main magnetic field and electromagnetic torque of the induction generator. All the above mentioned reactive powers are finally applied to one actual wind turbine subjected to a two-phase voltage dip in order to explain its operation under such transient conditions.
Keywords: reactive power; unbalanced three-phase systems; grid codes; wind energy; wind power generation reactive power; unbalanced three-phase systems; grid codes; wind energy; wind power generation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

León-Martínez, V.; Montañana-Romeu, J. Analysis of Wind Generator Operations under Unbalanced Voltage Dips in the Light of the Spanish Grid Code. Energies 2011, 4, 1148-1162.

AMA Style

León-Martínez V, Montañana-Romeu J. Analysis of Wind Generator Operations under Unbalanced Voltage Dips in the Light of the Spanish Grid Code. Energies. 2011; 4(8):1148-1162.

Chicago/Turabian Style

León-Martínez, Vicente; Montañana-Romeu, Joaquín. 2011. "Analysis of Wind Generator Operations under Unbalanced Voltage Dips in the Light of the Spanish Grid Code." Energies 4, no. 8: 1148-1162.


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