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Special Issue "Biodiversity and Forest Dynamics and Functions"

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A special issue of Diversity (ISSN 1424-2818).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 May 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Takashi S. Kohyama (Website)

Faculty of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan
Interests: plant architecture; forest tree community organization; forest ecosystems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Forests with spatially large and long-lived architecture are dynamically maintained through physiological, and population processes of constituent trees and other life forms. Due to their huge structure and long residence time, forests are most difficult system to be experimentally manipulated to solve linkage between forest biodiversity and functioning. Meantime, for example, we know that there is physiognomic and functional convergence of forest ecosystems under similar climate across isolated regions with unique biota, which allows to define biome types. This biogeographic convergence suggests that different assembly of biological components promotes ecosystem-level adaptation to climatic environments. This special issue focuses on the linkage between functioning of forest ecosystems and underlying biodiversity within and across ecosystems, and aims to enhance the cross-scale view of basic and applied forest science.

Prof. Dr. Takashi S. Kohyama
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • coexistence
  • abundance
  • allometry
  • biomass
  • demography
  • equilibrium
  • functional trait
  • non-equilibrium
  • trade-off

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Abiotic and Biotic Soil Characteristics in Old Growth Forests and Thinned or Unthinned Mature Stands in Three Regions of Oregon
Diversity 2012, 4(3), 334-362; doi:10.3390/d4030334
Received: 1 August 2012 / Revised: 30 August 2012 / Accepted: 30 August 2012 / Published: 20 September 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (443 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We compared forest floor depth, soil organic matter, soil moisture, anaerobic mineralizable nitrogen (a measure of microbial biomass), denitrification potential, and soil/litter arthropod communities among old growth, unthinned mature stands, and thinned mature stands at nine sites (each with all three stand [...] Read more.
We compared forest floor depth, soil organic matter, soil moisture, anaerobic mineralizable nitrogen (a measure of microbial biomass), denitrification potential, and soil/litter arthropod communities among old growth, unthinned mature stands, and thinned mature stands at nine sites (each with all three stand types) distributed among three regions of Oregon. Mineral soil measurements were restricted to the top 10 cm. Data were analyzed with both multivariate and univariate analyses of variance. Multivariate analyses were conducted with and without soil mesofauna or forest floor mesofauna, as data for those taxa were not collected on some sites. In multivariate analysis with soil mesofauna, the model giving the strongest separation among stand types (P = 0.019) included abundance and richness of soil mesofauna and anaerobic mineralizable nitrogen. The best model with forest floor mesofauna (P = 0.010) included anaerobic mineralizable nitrogen, soil moisture content, and richness of forest floor mesofauna. Old growth had the highest mean values for all variables, and in both models differed significantly from mature stands, while the latter did not differ. Old growth also averaged higher percent soil organic matter, and analysis including that variable was significant but not as strong as without it. Results of the multivariate analyses were mostly supported by univariate analyses, but there were some differences. In univariate analysis, the difference in percent soil organic matter between old growth and thinned mature was due to a single site in which the old growth had exceptionally high soil organic matter; without that site, percent soil organic matter did not differ between old growth and thinned mature, and a multivariate model containing soil organic matter was not statistically significant. In univariate analyses soil mesofauna had to be compared nonparametrically (because of heavy left-tails) and differed only in the Siskiyou Mountains, where they were most abundant and species rich in old growth forests. Species richness of mineral soil mesofauna correlated significantly (+) with percent soil organic matter and soil moisture, while richness of forest floor mesofauna correlated (+) with depth of the forest floor. Composition of forest floor and soil mesofauna suggest the two groups represent a single community. Soil moisture correlated highly with percent soil organic matter, with no evidence for drying in sites that were sampled relatively late in the summer drought, suggesting losses of surface soil moisture were at least partially replaced by hydraulic lift (which has been demonstrated in other forests of the region). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Forest Dynamics and Functions)
Open AccessArticle Species Assemblage and Biogeography of Japanese Protura (Hexapoda) in Forest Soils
Diversity 2012, 4(3), 318-333; doi:10.3390/d4030318
Received: 10 June 2012 / Revised: 13 August 2012 / Accepted: 16 August 2012 / Published: 31 August 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (712 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The distribution and species assembly of Japanese Protura collected from forest soils were examined using published databases and statistical analysis. We used records from 3110 sites where 71 taxa were found. The species richness of Protura ranged from one to 16 species, [...] Read more.
The distribution and species assembly of Japanese Protura collected from forest soils were examined using published databases and statistical analysis. We used records from 3110 sites where 71 taxa were found. The species richness of Protura ranged from one to 16 species, and TWINSPAN analysis of regional populations indicated that the northern and southern regions could be separated into distinct groups. Three major species assemblages were identified by cluster analysis from points containing more than six species. Three groups reflected historical migration from northern and western linkages to the Asian continent. The northern assemblage showed a negative correlation to winter minimum temperature and the other two assemblages exhibited relationships to precipitation and temperature. Vegetation was not responsible for proturan distribution. These results suggest that the history of Protura invasion explains the biogeography of these soil-based, small arthropods and also that climate change will induce a shift in the distribution of species irrespective of changes in vegetation type. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Forest Dynamics and Functions)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Diversity of Mat-Forming Fungi in Relation to Soil Properties, Disturbance, and Forest Ecotype at Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, USA
Diversity 2012, 4(2), 196-223; doi:10.3390/d4020196
Received: 14 March 2012 / Revised: 4 April 2012 / Accepted: 9 April 2012 / Published: 24 April 2012
PDF Full-text (5773 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In forest ecosystems, fungal mats are functionally important in nutrient and water uptake in litter and wood decomposition processes, in carbon resource allocation, soil weathering and in cycling of soil resources. Fungal mats can occur abundantly in forests and are widely distributed [...] Read more.
In forest ecosystems, fungal mats are functionally important in nutrient and water uptake in litter and wood decomposition processes, in carbon resource allocation, soil weathering and in cycling of soil resources. Fungal mats can occur abundantly in forests and are widely distributed globally. We sampled ponderosa pine/white fir and mountain hemlock/noble fir communities at Crater Lake National Park for mat-forming soil fungi. Fungus collections were identified by DNA sequencing. Thirty-eight mat-forming genotypes were identified; members of the five most common genera (Gautieria, Lepiota, Piloderma, Ramaria, and Rhizopogon) comprised 67% of all collections. The mycorrhizal genera Alpova and Lactarius are newly identified as ectomycorrhizal mat-forming taxa, as are the saprotrophic genera Flavoscypha, Gastropila, Lepiota and Xenasmatella. Twelve typical mat forms are illustrated, representing both ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi that were found. Abundance of fungal mats was correlated with higher soil carbon to nitrogen ratios, fine woody debris and needle litter mass in both forest ecotypes. Definitions of fungal mats are discussed, along with some of the challenges in defining what comprises a fungal “mat”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Forest Dynamics and Functions)
Open AccessArticle Diversity-Carbon Flux Relationships in a Northwest Forest
Diversity 2012, 4(1), 33-58; doi:10.3390/d4010033
Received: 12 November 2011 / Revised: 12 December 2011 / Accepted: 23 December 2011 / Published: 29 December 2011
PDF Full-text (2692 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
While aboveground biomass and forest productivity can vary over abiotic gradients (e.g., temperature and moisture gradients), biotic factors such as biodiversity and tree species stand dominance can also strongly influence biomass accumulation. In this study we use a permanent plot network to [...] Read more.
While aboveground biomass and forest productivity can vary over abiotic gradients (e.g., temperature and moisture gradients), biotic factors such as biodiversity and tree species stand dominance can also strongly influence biomass accumulation. In this study we use a permanent plot network to assess variability in aboveground carbon (C) flux in forest tree annual aboveground biomass increment (ABI), tree aboveground net primary productivity (ANPPtree), and net soil CO2 efflux in relation to diversity of coniferous, deciduous, and a nitrogen (N)-fixing tree species (Alnus rubra). Four major findings arose: (1) overstory species richness and indices of diversity explained between one third and half of all variation in measured aboveground C flux, and diversity indices were the most robust models predicting measured aboveground C flux; (2) trends suggested decreases in annual tree biomass increment C with increasing stand dominance for four of the five most abundant tree species; (3) the presence of an N-fixing tree species (A. rubra) was not related to changes in aboveground C flux, was negatively related to soil CO2 efflux, and showed only a weak negative relationship with aboveground C pools; and (4) stands with higher overstory richness and diversity typically had higher soil CO2 efflux. Interestingly, presence of the N-fixing species was not correlated with soil inorganic N pools, and inorganic N pools were not correlated with any C flux or pool measure. We also did not detect any strong patterns between forest tree diversity and C pools, suggesting potential balancing of increased C flux both into and out of diverse forest stands. These data highlight variability in second-growth forests that may have implications for overstory community drivers of C dynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Forest Dynamics and Functions)
Open AccessArticle Ecological Impact on Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycling of a Widespread Fast-growing Leguminous Tropical Forest Plantation Tree Species, Acacia mangium
Diversity 2011, 3(4), 712-720; doi:10.3390/d3040712
Received: 11 October 2011 / Revised: 14 November 2011 / Accepted: 21 November 2011 / Published: 28 November 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (169 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is one of the major pathways of N input to forest ecosystems, enriching N availability, particularly in lowland tropics. Recently there is growing concern regarding the wide areas of fast-growing leguminous plantations that could alter global N2O [...] Read more.
Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is one of the major pathways of N input to forest ecosystems, enriching N availability, particularly in lowland tropics. Recently there is growing concern regarding the wide areas of fast-growing leguminous plantations that could alter global N2O emissions. Here, we highlight substantially different N and phosphorus utilization and cycling at a plantation of Acacia mangium, which is N2-fixing and one of the major plantation species in tropical/subtropical Asia. The litterfall, fresh leaf quality and fine-root ingrowth of A. mangium were compared to those of non-N2-fixing Swietenia macrophylla and coniferous Araucaria cunninghamii in wet tropical climates in Borneo, Malaysia. The N and P concentrations of the A. mangium fresh leaves were higher than those of the other two species, whereas the P concentration in the leaf-litterfall of A. mangium was less than half that of the others; in contrast the N concentration was higher. The N:P ratio in the A. mangium leaf was markedly increased from fresh-leaf (29) to leaf-litterfall (81). Although the N flux in the total litterfall at the A. mangium plantation was large, the fine-root ingrowth of A. mangium significantly increased by applying both N and P. In conclusion, large quantities of N were accumulated and returned to the forest floor in A. mangium plantation, while its P resorption capacity was efficient. Such large N cycling and restricted P cycling in wide areas of monoculture A. mangium plantations may alter N and P cycling and their balance in the organic layer and soil on a stand level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Forest Dynamics and Functions)

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