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Diversity 2012, 4(3), 318-333; doi:10.3390/d4030318

Species Assemblage and Biogeography of Japanese Protura (Hexapoda) in Forest Soils

1
Soil Ecology Research Group, Yokohama National University, Tokiwadai 79-7, Hodogaya, Yokohama 248-8501, Japan
2
Saitama Museum of Natural History, Nagatoro, Saitama 369-1305, Japan
3
Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba 3-8-1, Meguro 153-8902, Japan
4
Department of Socio-Human Environmentology, Daito Bunka University, Iwadoono 560, Higashimatsuyama 355-8501, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 June 2012 / Revised: 13 August 2012 / Accepted: 16 August 2012 / Published: 31 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Forest Dynamics and Functions)
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Abstract

The distribution and species assembly of Japanese Protura collected from forest soils were examined using published databases and statistical analysis. We used records from 3110 sites where 71 taxa were found. The species richness of Protura ranged from one to 16 species, and TWINSPAN analysis of regional populations indicated that the northern and southern regions could be separated into distinct groups. Three major species assemblages were identified by cluster analysis from points containing more than six species. Three groups reflected historical migration from northern and western linkages to the Asian continent. The northern assemblage showed a negative correlation to winter minimum temperature and the other two assemblages exhibited relationships to precipitation and temperature. Vegetation was not responsible for proturan distribution. These results suggest that the history of Protura invasion explains the biogeography of these soil-based, small arthropods and also that climate change will induce a shift in the distribution of species irrespective of changes in vegetation type. View Full-Text
Keywords: biodiversity; geological history; GLM: soil arthropod; vegetation biodiversity; geological history; GLM: soil arthropod; vegetation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kaneko, N.; Minamiya, Y.; Nakamura, O.; Saito, M.; Hashimoto, M. Species Assemblage and Biogeography of Japanese Protura (Hexapoda) in Forest Soils. Diversity 2012, 4, 318-333.

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