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plasma, Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2018)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Plasma: An International Open Access Journal for All of Plasma Science
plasma 2018, 1(1), 4; doi:10.3390/plasma1010004
Received: 3 January 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
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Abstract
Plasma is an open access, cross-disciplinary scholarly journal of scientific studies related to all aspects of plasma science, such as plasma physics, plasma chemistry and space plasma[...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle Mechanism of Ampicillin Degradation by Non-Thermal Plasma Treatment with FE-DBD
plasma 2018, 1(1), 1; doi:10.3390/plasma1010001
Received: 8 August 2017 / Revised: 19 September 2017 / Accepted: 10 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
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Abstract
This research focused on determining the effectiveness of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma as an alternative to advanced oxidation processes (AOP) for antibiotic removal in solution. For this study, 20 mM (6.988 g/L) solutions of ampicillin were treated with a floating electrode dielectric barrier
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This research focused on determining the effectiveness of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma as an alternative to advanced oxidation processes (AOP) for antibiotic removal in solution. For this study, 20 mM (6.988 g/L) solutions of ampicillin were treated with a floating electrode dielectric barrier discharge (FE-DBD) plasma for varying treatment times. The treated solutions were analyzed primarily using mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The preliminary product formed was Ampicillin Sulfoxide, however, many more species are formed as plasma treatment time is increased. Ampicillin was completely eliminated after five minutes of air-plasma treatment. The primary mechanism of ampicillin degradation by plasma treatment is investigated in this study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Endothelialization of Polyethylene Terephthalate Treated in SO2 Plasma Determined by the Degree of Material Cytotoxicity
plasma 2018, 1(1), 2; doi:10.3390/plasma1010002
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 4 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 December 2017 / Published: 9 December 2017
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Abstract
Improving the biocompatibility of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) vascular grafts is an important task for avoiding thrombus formation. Therefore, SO2 plasma at various treatment periods were used to modify PET surface properties by forming sulfate functional groups. These groups were shown to act
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Improving the biocompatibility of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) vascular grafts is an important task for avoiding thrombus formation. Therefore, SO2 plasma at various treatment periods were used to modify PET surface properties by forming sulfate functional groups. These groups were shown to act antithrombogenically, ensuring good hemocompatibility of the materials, although the biocompatibility of such materials still remains a mystery. For this reason, the adhesion and viability of HUVEC cells on SO2 plasma-modified PET surfaces were studied, and the possible toxicity of the tested material was determined using two different assays, MTT (metabolic activity assay) and SRB (in-vitro toxicology assay). Changes in chemical composition, morphology and wettability were determined as well. Improved endothelialization was observed for all plasma-treated samples, with the most optimal being the sample treated for 80 s, which can be explained by it having the best combination of surface functionalization, roughness and morphology. Furthermore, toxicity was observed to some extent on the sample treated for 160 s, indicating the lowest cell density among the plasma-treated samples. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed increased oxygen and sulfur content on the surface, which was independent on treatment time. Surface roughness of the plasma-treated samples increased, reaching its maximum after 80 s of treatment, and decreased thereafter. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Electrical, Thermal and Optical Parametric Study of Guided Ionization Waves Produced with a Compact μs-Pulsed DBD-Based Reactor
plasma 2018, 1(1), 3; doi:10.3390/plasma1010003
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 25 December 2017
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Abstract
Atmospheric pressure guided ionization waves (GIWs) that are driven by ns/μs-pulsed high voltages, are promising tools in the biomedical field allowing for the effective production of reactive species and metastables without thermal damages of the specimens that are exposed. In most cases, plasma
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Atmospheric pressure guided ionization waves (GIWs) that are driven by ns/μs-pulsed high voltages, are promising tools in the biomedical field allowing for the effective production of reactive species and metastables without thermal damages of the specimens that are exposed. In most cases, plasma is produced in noble gases using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) devices of more-or-less sophisticated geometries. In this study, a compact low-cost DBD reactor of very simple geometry is presented. It is fed with pure helium and driven by positive μs-pulsed high voltage (amplitude: 4.5–8 kV, pulse width: 1–10 μs) of audio frequencies (5–20 kHz), while it operates consistently for long time periods in a wide range of conditions. The produced plasma exhibits propagation lengths up to 4 cm and rich chemical reactivity is established outside the reactor, depending on the device’s experimental parameters. Besides, the dielectric tube’s temperature during plasma operation is an important factor, which is linked to the plasma characteristics. This temperature and its variations are thoroughly investigated herein, along with GIWs electrical features versus the electrical parameters of the pulsed power supply. Accordingly, it is demonstrated that not all of the operational windows are adequate for thermal-free operation and suitable operating conditions of this system are proposed for diverse applications, such as biomedical (low gas temperature is a prerequisite) and surface treatments of solid materials (low temperatures are not required). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Microscopic Effect on Filamentary Coherent Structure Dynamics in Boundary Layer Plasmas
plasma 2018, 1(1), 6; doi:10.3390/plasma1010006
Received: 5 March 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
This study has demonstrated kinetic behaviors on the plasma filament propagation with the three-dimensional (3D) Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulation. When the ion-to-electron temperature ratio Ti/Te is higher, the poloidal symmetry breaking in the filament propagation occurs. The poloidal symmetry breaking
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This study has demonstrated kinetic behaviors on the plasma filament propagation with the three-dimensional (3D) Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulation. When the ion-to-electron temperature ratio T i / T e is higher, the poloidal symmetry breaking in the filament propagation occurs. The poloidal symmetry breaking is thought to be induced by the unbalanced potential structure that arises from the effect of the gyro motion of plasma particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiscale Methods in Plasma Physics)
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Open AccessArticle The Role of Magnetic Islands in Collisionless Driven Reconnection: A Kinetic Approach to Multi-Scale Phenomena
plasma 2018, 1(1), 7; doi:10.3390/plasma1010007 (registering DOI)
Received: 13 February 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 21 April 2018
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Abstract
The role of magnetic islands in collisionless driven reconnection has been investigated from the standpoint of a kinetic approach to multi-scale phenomena by means of two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. There are two different types of the solutions in the evolution of the reconnection
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The role of magnetic islands in collisionless driven reconnection has been investigated from the standpoint of a kinetic approach to multi-scale phenomena by means of two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. There are two different types of the solutions in the evolution of the reconnection system. One is a steady solution in which the system relaxes into a steady state, and no island is generated (the no-island case). The other is an intermittent solution in which the system does not reach a steady state, and magnetic islands are frequently generated in the current sheet (the multi-island case). It is found that the electromagnetic energy is more effectively transferred to the particle energy in the multi-island case compared with the no-island case. The transferred energy is stored inside the magnetic island in the form of the thermal energy through compressional heating, and is carried away together with the magnetic island from the reconnection region. These results suggest that the formation of a magnetic island chain may have a potential to bridge the energy gap between macroscopic and microscopic physics by widening the dissipation region and strengthening the energy dissipation rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiscale Methods in Plasma Physics)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Plasma Medicine: A Brief Introduction
plasma 2018, 1(1), 5; doi:10.3390/plasma1010005
Received: 28 January 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 19 February 2018
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Abstract
This mini review is to introduce the readers of Plasma to the field of plasma medicine. This is a multidisciplinary field of research at the intersection of physics, engineering, biology and medicine. Plasma medicine is only about two decades old, but the research
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This mini review is to introduce the readers of Plasma to the field of plasma medicine. This is a multidisciplinary field of research at the intersection of physics, engineering, biology and medicine. Plasma medicine is only about two decades old, but the research community active in this emerging field has grown tremendously in the last few years. Today, research is being conducted on a number of applications including wound healing and cancer treatment. Although a lot of knowledge has been created and our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that play important roles in the interaction between low temperature plasma and biological cells and tissues has greatly expanded, much remains to be done to get a thorough and detailed picture of all the physical and biochemical processes that enter into play. Full article
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