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Urban Sci., Volume 1, Issue 3 (September 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle City Sovereignty: Urban Resistance and Rebel Cities Reconsidered
Urban Sci. 2017, 1(3), 22; doi:10.3390/urbansci1030022
Received: 17 February 2017 / Revised: 18 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 23 June 2017
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Abstract
The article argues for an increase in de facto already claimed city sovereignty. It situates the discussion, first in the historical context of city-state relationships, and second, in the current urban crises in the United States tied to the sanctuary city movement, then
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The article argues for an increase in de facto already claimed city sovereignty. It situates the discussion, first in the historical context of city-state relationships, and second, in the current urban crises in the United States tied to the sanctuary city movement, then examines legal grounds for devolution of power to cities, before discussing the legal concepts of “urban commons” and “city power”, finally outlining constraints facing increasingly sovereign cities. The article argues that current legal literature on “urban commons” and “city power” needs a stronger normative lens and better conceptualization of urban inequality, redistribution, and publicness. Moreover, if cities are to assume greater capacity to govern and to ensure life, liberty, and the sustainability of their populations, they have to overcome serious constraints in the four domains outlined in the article: (1) surveillance and control of urban space, (2) privatization of public space, (3) the rise of the luxury city, large-scale developments, megaprojects, and (4) homelessness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Inequality)
Open AccessArticle Building a National-Longitudinal Geospatial Bicycling Data Collection from Crowdsourcing
Urban Sci. 2017, 1(3), 23; doi:10.3390/urbansci1030023
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 28 June 2017
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Abstract
To realize the full potential of crowdsourced data collected by smartphone applications in urban research and planning, there is a need for parsimonious, reliable, computationally and temporally efficient data processing routines. The literature indicates that the opportunities brought by crowdsourced data in generating
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To realize the full potential of crowdsourced data collected by smartphone applications in urban research and planning, there is a need for parsimonious, reliable, computationally and temporally efficient data processing routines. The literature indicates that the opportunities brought by crowdsourced data in generating low-cost, bottom-up, and fine spatial and temporal scale data, are also accompanied by issues related to data quality, bias, privacy concerns and low accessibility. Using an exemplar case of RiderLog, a crowdsourced GPS tracked bicycling data, this paper describes and critiques the processes developed to transform this urban big data. Furthermore, the paper outlines the important tasks of formatting, cleaning, validating, anonymizing and publishing this data for the capital cities of each state and territory in Australia. More broadly, this research contributes to the foundational underpinnings of how to process and make available crowdsourced data for research and real world urban planning purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crowdsourcing Urban Data)
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Open AccessArticle Urban Nature: Perception and Acceptance of Alternative Green Space Management and the Change of Awareness after Provision of Environmental Information. A Chance for Biodiversity Protection
Urban Sci. 2017, 1(3), 24; doi:10.3390/urbansci1030024
Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 10 July 2017 / Accepted: 20 July 2017 / Published: 23 July 2017
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Abstract
Measurable ecological data, e.g., species diversity, provide inadequate information for achieving the comprehensive protection of biodiversity, because human acceptance attitudes can be important factors in undermining nature protection schemes. We have analysed an ecologically driven urban management system presented to urban habitants. A
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Measurable ecological data, e.g., species diversity, provide inadequate information for achieving the comprehensive protection of biodiversity, because human acceptance attitudes can be important factors in undermining nature protection schemes. We have analysed an ecologically driven urban management system presented to urban habitants. A photograph-based survey answered by 424 participants was used to evaluate their impressions of natural meadows. The positive effect of provided information tables was demonstrated by pre- and post-test designs. Attitudes towards urban nature protection showed a statistical preference for green-area management systems optimising insect protection compared with more regularly mowed meadows and lawns. Thus, the perceptions of people should be considered in processes of biodiversity protection. Our results correlate with personal attitude and education, support the aims of extensive green-space management and should encourage urban planners to integrate biodiversity protection zones into urban planning. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Path to an Integrated Modelling between IFC and CityGML for Neighborhood Scale Modelling
Urban Sci. 2017, 1(3), 25; doi:10.3390/urbansci1030025
Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 2 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
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Abstract
Planning of the built environment requires two-levels of planning process, city/neighborhood-scale and building-scale levels. At the city/neighborhood-scale, Geographic Information System (GIS) is commonly used with CityGML as its open-source 3D format. Meanwhile, for building-scale, Building Information Modelling (BIM) is used, and Industry Foundation
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Planning of the built environment requires two-levels of planning process, city/neighborhood-scale and building-scale levels. At the city/neighborhood-scale, Geographic Information System (GIS) is commonly used with CityGML as its open-source 3D format. Meanwhile, for building-scale, Building Information Modelling (BIM) is used, and Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) format is its open-source file format. Both technologies work on different data formats and data exchanges. The research is focusing on ways of exchanging information and bringing together CityGML and IFC. With local context input, the methodology could be considered as a framework to parametrically manage the information related to energy, environment, security, etc. In this project, two use cases were developed, such as visualization for a web application. Autodesk Revit and Graphisoft Archicad were used in developing the building models as a prototype for the transformation testing. The transformation system was developed using Feature Manipulation Engine (FME), by Safe Software. FME allowed us to restructure the data model (IFC) and transformed it to the destination data format (CityGML). The test results showed that from detailed BIM models, CityGML format, as well as a Sketchup file, could be generated. These models can be imported to web visualization applications for urban energy modelling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Heat Island and Mitigation Technologies—Impact and Mitigation)
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Open AccessArticle The Classification of Urban Uses
Urban Sci. 2017, 1(3), 26; doi:10.3390/urbansci1030026
Received: 25 July 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 16 August 2017
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Abstract
The classification of uses is one of the central issues of urban planning, since it is only by referring to groups of uses that we can achieve the simplification and, ultimately, the understanding of urban space. However, contemporary planning theory has shown very
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The classification of uses is one of the central issues of urban planning, since it is only by referring to groups of uses that we can achieve the simplification and, ultimately, the understanding of urban space. However, contemporary planning theory has shown very little interest in a theoretical approach to this issue. The present paper addresses the issue by integrating it into the development of an analytical theory of urban uses which it calls urbanology. Specifically, the paper starts with the description of the basic concepts and processes of classification, which are then employed to produce a general theoretical classification of urban uses. Since the classification of uses is not only a question of theoretical importance, but directly related to applied planning, the paper concludes with the elaboration of a second, alternative classification which satisfies the needs of contemporary planning practice. Full article
Open AccessArticle Associations of Noise and Socioeconomic and -Demographic Status on Cardiovascular and Respiratory Diseases on Borough Level in a Large German City State
Urban Sci. 2017, 1(3), 27; doi:10.3390/urbansci1030027
Received: 22 June 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 17 August 2017
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Abstract
Worldwide, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases are increasing. Environmental noise and the socioeconomic and sociodemographic situation are important factors for the diseases. Using borough health claims data from 2011 in the city of Hamburg, ecological analyses with principal component analyses were conducted to describe
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Worldwide, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases are increasing. Environmental noise and the socioeconomic and sociodemographic situation are important factors for the diseases. Using borough health claims data from 2011 in the city of Hamburg, ecological analyses with principal component analyses were conducted to describe the relationship of road traffic noise Lden (day, evening, and night) > 65 dB(A), physician density, and social deprivation with regional prevalence rates of heart failure and hypertension (n = 67 boroughs). Additionally, associations between the considered factors with borough prevalence rates of acute bronchitis and asthma in children up to 14 years old were analyzed. The multivariate regression analyses (ANCOVA) indicated that the socioeconomic and sociodemographic borough background might be associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, showing the strongest association among hypertensive female patients with 9.90 percent (p < 0.0001) in the highest social deprivation category, when compared to the group of low social deprivation. However, associations between noise, physician density, and the respective health outcomes were negligible. Results will serve as a basis for further investigations. By using data from two surveys, future studies will focus on individual level data to assess the validity of our model, and to develop strategies to reduce the prevalence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle U.S. Metropolitan Spatial Structure Evolution: Investigating Spatial Patterns of Employment Growth from 2000 to 2010
Urban Sci. 2017, 1(3), 28; doi:10.3390/urbansci1030028
Received: 11 July 2017 / Revised: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
Urban spatial structure evolution, when using employment as the proxy, can be explained by the change of employment distribution. In this study, we measure the 361 US metro areas (metros) by employment shares, in five submetro sections (i.e., main-center, sub-centers, non-center clusters, non-cluster
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Urban spatial structure evolution, when using employment as the proxy, can be explained by the change of employment distribution. In this study, we measure the 361 US metro areas (metros) by employment shares, in five submetro sections (i.e., main-center, sub-centers, non-center clusters, non-cluster urban areas, and rural areas), and explore the spatial patterns of submetro growths. We use recognized methods to delimit urban and rural areas, identify employment centers with relative thresholds, and categorize the metros into three (i.e., small, midsize, and large) categories. Then we use descriptive statistics to determine the dynamics of employment growth in the five submetro sections. The results suggest that metros’ spatial structures and growth patterns vary greatly across different size categories. We found that (1) small metros tend to have growth in the main-center or non-cluster urban areas; (2) midsize metros may be in the critical period of forming sub-centers, which also may be an effective way to curb urban expansion into rural areas; and, (3) the five submetro growths in large metros tend to be positively associated with one another, except for the main-center. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Citizen Science for Urban Forest Management? Predicting the Data Density and Richness of Urban Forest Volunteered Geographic Information
Urban Sci. 2017, 1(3), 30; doi:10.3390/urbansci1030030
Received: 22 July 2017 / Revised: 13 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
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Abstract
Volunteered geographic information (VGI) has been heralded as a promising new data source for urban planning and policymaking. However, there are also concerns surrounding uneven levels of participation and spatial coverage, despite the promotion of VGI as a means to increase access to
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Volunteered geographic information (VGI) has been heralded as a promising new data source for urban planning and policymaking. However, there are also concerns surrounding uneven levels of participation and spatial coverage, despite the promotion of VGI as a means to increase access to geographic knowledge production. To begin addressing these concerns, this research examines the spatial distribution and data richness of urban forest VGI in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and San Francisco, California. Using ordinary least squares (OLS), general linear models (GLM), and spatial autoregressive models, our findings reveal that sociodemographic and environmental indicators are strong predictors of both densities of attributed trees and data richness. Although recent digital urban tree inventory applications present significant opportunities for collaborative data gathering, innovative research, and improved policymaking, asymmetries in the quantity and quality of the data may undermine their effectiveness. If these incomplete and uneven datasets are used in policymaking, environmental justice issues may arise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crowdsourcing Urban Data)
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Review

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Open AccessReview The Relationship between the Neighborhood Built Environment and Active Transportation among Adults: A Systematic Literature Review
Urban Sci. 2017, 1(3), 29; doi:10.3390/urbansci1030029
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 16 August 2017 / Accepted: 24 August 2017 / Published: 27 August 2017
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Abstract
Active transportation (AT) has aroused great interest in recent years as it may benefit public health and reduce the dependency on cars. This article aims to summarize recent findings on the relationship between the objectively measured built environment and AT among adults, to
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Active transportation (AT) has aroused great interest in recent years as it may benefit public health and reduce the dependency on cars. This article aims to summarize recent findings on the relationship between the objectively measured built environment and AT among adults, to examine if different study designs may generate different results, and to provide directions for future research. A systematic literature review of journal articles from different databases was conducted. Fifty-one articles published between 2005 and 2017 were identified, and twelve built environment factors were extracted. The results showed that residential density, land use mix, street connectivity, retail land use, walkability, sidewalk, and access to destinations had a convincing positive relationship with walking for transport. Regarding cycling for transport, while street connectivity and bike lane showed a convincing positive relationship, neighborhood aesthetics and access to destinations showed a convincing negative relationship. Studies that use different analyzed geographic units and different measurements of AT may generate different results, so choosing suitable geographic units and measurement of AT is necessary to reduce the mismatch in the relationships. In addition, we need more longitudinal studies, more studies on cycling for transport, and more studies in countries outside North America and Australasia. Full article
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