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Biomimetics 2017, 2(2), 4; doi:10.3390/biomimetics2020004

Immobilization of Titanium(IV) Oxide onto 3D Spongin Scaffolds of Marine Sponge Origin According to Extreme Biomimetics Principles for Removal of C.I. Basic Blue 9

1
Institute of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Berdychowo 4, Pl-60965 Poznan, Poland
2
Department of Biochemistry, Duke University, 307 Research Drive, Durham, NC 27710, USA
3
Institute of Electronics and Sensor Materials, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner-Str. 3, 09599 Freiberg, Germany
4
Institute of Experimental Physics, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Leipziger Str. 23, 09599 Freiberg, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Josep Samitier
Received: 9 February 2017 / Revised: 20 March 2017 / Accepted: 21 March 2017 / Published: 25 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme Biomimetics)
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Abstract

The aim of extreme biomimetics is to design a bridge between extreme biomineralization and bioinspired materials chemistry, where the basic principle is to exploit chemically and thermally stable, renewable biopolymers for the development of the next generation of biologically inspired advanced and functional composite materials. This study reports for the first time the use of proteinaceous spongin-based scaffolds isolated from marine demosponge Hippospongia communis as a three-dimensional (3D) template for the hydrothermal deposition of crystalline titanium dioxide. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) assisted with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mapping, low temperature nitrogen sorption, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), and attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transform infrared (ATR–FTIR) spectroscopy are used as characterization techniques. It was found that, after hydrothermal treatment crystalline titania in anatase form is obtained, which forms a coating around spongin microfibers through interaction with negatively charged functional groups of the structural protein as well as via hydrogen bonding. The material was tested as a potential heterogeneous photocatalyst for removal of C.I. Basic Blue 9 dye under UV irradiation. The obtained 3D composite material shows a high efficiency of dye removal through both adsorption and photocatalysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: extreme biomimetics; spongin; scaffolds; marine sponges; hydrothermal synthesis; titanium dioxide; photocatalysis extreme biomimetics; spongin; scaffolds; marine sponges; hydrothermal synthesis; titanium dioxide; photocatalysis
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Szatkowski, T.; Siwińska-Stefańska, K.; Wysokowski, M.; Stelling, A.L.; Joseph, Y.; Ehrlich, H.; Jesionowski, T. Immobilization of Titanium(IV) Oxide onto 3D Spongin Scaffolds of Marine Sponge Origin According to Extreme Biomimetics Principles for Removal of C.I. Basic Blue 9. Biomimetics 2017, 2, 4.

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