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Safety 2017, 3(4), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety3040026

How Did Crew Resource Management Take-Off Outside of the Cockpit? A Systematic Review of How Crew Resource Management Training Is Conceptualised and Evaluated for Non-Pilots

1
Safety Science Innovation Lab, School of Humanities, Griffith University, Nathan 4111, Australia
2
Aviation Academy, Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Amsterdam 1097 DZ, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 31 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aviation Safety)
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Abstract

Crew resource management (CRM) training for flight crews is widespread and has been credited with improving aviation safety. As other industries have adopted CRM, they have interpreted CRM in different ways. We sought to understand how industries have adopted CRM, regarding its conceptualisation and evaluation. For this, we conducted a systematic review of CRM studies in the Maritime, Nuclear Power, Oil and Gas, and Air Traffic Control industries. We searched three electronic databases (Web of Science, Science Direct, Scopus) and CRM reviews for papers. We analysed these papers on their goals, scope, levers of change, and evaluation. To synthesise, we compared the analysis results across industries. We found that most CRM programs have the broad goals of improving safety and efficiency. However, there are differences in the scope and levers of change between programs, both within and between industries. Most evaluative studies suffer from methodological weaknesses, and the evaluation does not align with how studies conceptualise CRM. These results challenge the assumption that there is a clear link between CRM training and enhanced safety in the analysed industries. Future CRM research needs to provide a clear conceptualisation—how CRM is expected to improve safety—and select evaluation measures consistent with this. View Full-Text
Keywords: crew resource management (CRM); training; systematic review; maritime; air traffic control; nuclear power industry; oil and gas crew resource management (CRM); training; systematic review; maritime; air traffic control; nuclear power industry; oil and gas
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Havinga, J.; de Boer, R.J.; Rae, A.; Dekker, S.W.A. How Did Crew Resource Management Take-Off Outside of the Cockpit? A Systematic Review of How Crew Resource Management Training Is Conceptualised and Evaluated for Non-Pilots. Safety 2017, 3, 26.

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