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Batteries 2016, 2(3), 29; doi:10.3390/batteries2030029

Fundamentals of Using Battery Energy Storage Systems to Provide Primary Control Reserves in Germany

1
Associate Professorship Power Transmission Systems, Technical University of Munich (TUM), Arcisstr. 21, Munich 80333, Germany
2
Institute for Electrical Energy Storage Technology, Technical University of Munich (TUM), Arcisstr. 21, Munich 80333, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Joeri Van Mierlo
Received: 28 April 2016 / Revised: 22 August 2016 / Accepted: 30 August 2016 / Published: 13 September 2016
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Abstract

The application of stationary battery storage systems to German electrical grids can help with various storage services. This application requires controlling the charge and discharge power of such a system. For example, photovoltaic (PV) home storage, uninterruptible power supply, and storage systems for providing ancillary services such as primary control reserves (PCRs) represent battery applications with positive profitability. Because PCRs are essential for stabilizing grid frequency and maintaining a robust electrical grid, German transmission system operators (TSOs) released strict regulations in August 2015 for providing PCRs with battery storage systems as part of regulating the International Grid Control Cooperation (IGCC) region in Europe. These regulations focused on the permissible state of charge (SoC) of the battery during nominal and extreme conditions. The concomitant increased capacity demand oversizing may result in a significant profitability reduction, which can be attenuated only by using an optimal parameterization of the control algorithm for energy management of the storage systems. In this paper, the sizing optimization is achieved and a recommendation for a control algorithm that includes the appropriate parameters for the requirements in the German market is given. Furthermore, the storage cost is estimated, including battery aging simulations for different aging parameter sets to allow for a realistic profitability calculation. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy storage; lithium-ion; stationary battery storage; control power; primary control reserve energy storage; lithium-ion; stationary battery storage; control power; primary control reserve
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zeh, A.; Müller, M.; Naumann, M.; Hesse, H.C.; Jossen, A.; Witzmann, R. Fundamentals of Using Battery Energy Storage Systems to Provide Primary Control Reserves in Germany. Batteries 2016, 2, 29.

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