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J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 16; doi:10.3390/jof3010016

Activity of Amphotericin B and Anidulafungin Combined with Rifampicin, Clarithromycin, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid, N-Acetylcysteine, and Farnesol against Candida tropicalis Biofilms

1
Departamento de Microbiología, Universidad de Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
2
Laboratorio de Biofilms Microbianos, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
3
Grupo de Infección Grave, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria La Fe, 46026 Valencia, Spain
4
Área de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
5
Servicio de Microbiología Clínica, Hospital Universitario La Fe, 46026 Valencia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mahmoud A. Ghannoum
Received: 15 January 2017 / Revised: 9 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Biofilms)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1069 KB, uploaded 22 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

We evaluated the activity of (1) amphotericin-B (AMB), combined with rifampicin (RIF), clarithromycin (CLA), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and farnesol (FAR) (1000, 1000, 1000, 4000, and 30,000 mg/L, and 300 µM, respectively), against Candida tropicalis biofilms formed on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and (2) anidulafungin (ANF) combined with the same compounds at 8, 10, 5, 40, and 30 mg/L, and 30 µM, respectively, against biofilms formed on titanium. Biofilm growth kinetics were performed in a CDC Biofilm Reactor (CBR). PTFE or titanium disks were removed from the CBR at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h to determine the Log10CFU/cm2. Killing kinetics were performed by adding the drugs to 24-h-mature biofilms (time 0). Disks were removed after 24, 48, and 72 h of drug exposure to determine Log10CFU/cm2. Viable cells in biofilms were 4.73 and 4.29 Log10CFU/cm2 on PTFE and titanium, respectively. Maximum Log10 decreases in CFU/cm2 depend on the combination and were: 3.53 (AMB + EDTA), 2.65 (AMB + RIF), 3.07 (AMB + NAC), 2.52 (AMB + CLA), 1.49 (AMB + FAR), 2.26 (ANF + EDTA), 2.45 (ANF + RIF), 2.47 (ANF + NAC), 1.52 (ANF + CLA), and 0.44 (ANF + FAR). In conclusion, EDTA, NAC, RIF, and CLA improve the activity of AMB and ANF against biofilms developed on both surfaces, which could be an effective strategy against C. tropicalis biofilm-related infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: Candida tropicalis; CDC Biofilm Reactor; biofilm; amphotericin B; anidulafungin; PTFE; titanium; anti-biofilm compounds Candida tropicalis; CDC Biofilm Reactor; biofilm; amphotericin B; anidulafungin; PTFE; titanium; anti-biofilm compounds
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fernández-Rivero, M.E.; del Pozo, J.L.; Valentín, A.; de Diego, A.M.; Pemán, J.; Cantón, E. Activity of Amphotericin B and Anidulafungin Combined with Rifampicin, Clarithromycin, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid, N-Acetylcysteine, and Farnesol against Candida tropicalis Biofilms. J. Fungi 2017, 3, 16.

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