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J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2016, 3(2), 16; doi:10.3390/jcdd3020016

Postnatal Cardiac Autonomic Nervous Control in Pediatric Congenital Heart Disease

1
Department of Biological Psychology, Faculty of Behavioral and Movement sciences, VU Amsterdam, Van der Boechorststraat 1, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2
EMGO+ Institute for Health and Care Research, VU Medical Center Amsterdam, Van der Boechorststraat 7, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
3
Department of Pediatric Cardiology, LUMC University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands
4
Department of Cardiology and Anatomy & Embryology, LUMC University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andy Wessels
Received: 8 December 2015 / Revised: 30 March 2016 / Accepted: 9 April 2016 / Published: 15 April 2016
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Abstract

Congenital heart disease is the most common congenital defect. During childhood, survival is generally good but, in adulthood, late complications are not uncommon. Abnormal autonomic control in children with congenital heart disease may contribute considerably to the pathophysiology of these long term sequelae. This narrative review of 34 studies aims to summarize current knowledge on function of the autonomic nervous system in children with a congenital heart defect. Large scale studies that measure both branches of the nervous system for prolonged periods of time in well-defined patient cohorts in various phases of childhood and adolescence are currently lacking. Pending such studies, there is not yet a good grasp on the extent and direction of sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic function in pediatric congenital heart disease. Longitudinal studies in homogenous patient groups linking autonomic nervous system function and clinical outcome are warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: autonomic nervous system; congenital heart disease; children; heart rate variability autonomic nervous system; congenital heart disease; children; heart rate variability
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nederend, I.; Jongbloed, M.R.M.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Blom, N.A.; ten Harkel, A.D.J. Postnatal Cardiac Autonomic Nervous Control in Pediatric Congenital Heart Disease. J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2016, 3, 16.

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J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. EISSN 2308-3425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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