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J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2014, 1(1), 121-133; doi:10.3390/jcdd1010121
Review

The Popeye Domain Containing Genes and cAMP Signaling

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Received: 3 April 2014; in revised form: 6 May 2014 / Accepted: 7 May 2014 / Published: 21 May 2014
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Abstract: 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a second messenger, which plays an important role in the heart. It is generated in response to activation of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Initially, it was thought that protein kinase A (PKA) exclusively mediates cAMP-induced cellular responses such as an increase in cardiac contractility, relaxation, and heart rate. With the identification of the exchange factor directly activated by cAMP (EPAC) and hyperpolarizing cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels as cAMP effector proteins it became clear that a protein network is involved in cAMP signaling. The Popeye domain containing (Popdc) genes encode yet another family of cAMP-binding proteins, which are prominently expressed in the heart. Loss-of-function mutations in mice are associated with cardiac arrhythmia and impaired skeletal muscle regeneration. Interestingly, the cardiac phenotype, which is present in both, Popdc1 and Popdc2 null mutants, is characterized by a stress-induced sinus bradycardia, suggesting that Popdc proteins participate in cAMP signaling in the sinuatrial node. The identification of the two-pore channel TREK-1 and Caveolin 3 as Popdc-interacting proteins represents a first step into understanding the mechanisms of heart rate modulation triggered by Popdc proteins.
Keywords: Popeye domain containing genes; cAMP; phosphate binding cassette; cAMP-binding proteins; pacemaking; cardiac arrhythmia; fight-or-flight response; sinus node; cardiac conduction system Popeye domain containing genes; cAMP; phosphate binding cassette; cAMP-binding proteins; pacemaking; cardiac arrhythmia; fight-or-flight response; sinus node; cardiac conduction system
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Brand, T.; Poon, K.L.; Simrick, S.; Schindler, R.F.R. The Popeye Domain Containing Genes and cAMP Signaling. J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2014, 1, 121-133.

AMA Style

Brand T, Poon KL, Simrick S, Schindler RFR. The Popeye Domain Containing Genes and cAMP Signaling. Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease. 2014; 1(1):121-133.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Brand, Thomas; Poon, Kar L.; Simrick, Subreena; Schindler, Roland F.R. 2014. "The Popeye Domain Containing Genes and cAMP Signaling." J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 1, no. 1: 121-133.

J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. EISSN 2308-3425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert