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Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5020042

A Review of Current Research and Knowledge Gaps in the Epidemiology of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in Trinidad and Tobago

1
School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex, Mount Hope, Trinidad and Tobago
2
Food Animal Health Research Program, The Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, 1680 Madison Ave, Wooster, OH 44691, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
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Abstract

Salmonella and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli are two of the main causes of foodborne disease globally, and while they have been implicated as possible causes of foodborne disease within the Caribbean region, the actual incidence is unknown. Trinidad and Tobago, one of the larger countries in the Caribbean, has an estimated annual foodborne disease burden of over 100,000 cases and, similar to other countries, the etiology of most of these cases is unknown. Both pathogens can reside as part of the normal gastrointestinal microflora of many wild and domestic animals, with animals acting as reservoirs, spillover hosts, or dead-end hosts. Carriage in animal species can be asymptomatic or, in the case of Salmonella in particular, there may be clinical manifestation in animals, which resemble the disease seen in humans. In this review, we will focus on the epidemiology of these two foodborne pathogens in Trinidad and Tobago and identify any knowledge gaps in the published literature. The filling of this critical knowledge void is essential for the development and implementation of appropriate mechanisms to reduce the dissemination and transmission of these pathogens, not only in Trinidad and Tobago, but also in the wider Caribbean. View Full-Text
Keywords: Shiga toxin; Escherichia coli; food safety; Caribbean; veterinary medicine; one health Shiga toxin; Escherichia coli; food safety; Caribbean; veterinary medicine; one health
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Persad, A.K.; LeJeune, J. A Review of Current Research and Knowledge Gaps in the Epidemiology of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in Trinidad and Tobago. Vet. Sci. 2018, 5, 42.

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